Artillery of the XXI century

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Artillery of the XXI century
Artillery of the XXI century

The modern weapon system of barreled military artillery was formed on the basis of the experience of the Second World War, the new conditions of a possible nuclear war, the vast experience of modern local wars and, of course, from the possibilities of new technologies.

The Second World War introduced many changes to the artillery armament system - the role of mortars sharply increased, anti-tank artillery rapidly developed, in which "classic" guns were supplemented with recoilless guns, self-propelled artillery that accompanied tanks and infantry was rapidly improved, the tasks of divisional and corps artillery became more complicated, and etc.

How the requirements for support weapons increased can be judged by two very successful Soviet "products" of one caliber and one purpose (both were created under the leadership of FF Petrov) - the 122-mm divisional howitzer M-30 of 1938 and mm howitzer (howitzer-gun) D-30 1960. In the D-30, both the barrel length (35 calibers) and the firing range (15, 3 kilometers) increased by one and a half times compared to the M-30.

By the way, it was the howitzers that eventually became the most "working" weapons of cannon military artillery, primarily divisional artillery. This, of course, did not negate other types of weapons. Artillery fire missions represent a very extensive list: the destruction of missile systems, artillery and mortar batteries, the destruction of tanks, armored vehicles and enemy manpower by direct or indirect (at long ranges) aiming, the destruction of targets on the opposite slopes of heights, in shelters, the destruction of command posts, field fortifications, setting up barrage fire, smoke screens, radio interference, remote mining of the area and so on. Therefore, artillery is armed with various combat systems. It is precisely the complexes, since a simple set of weapons is not yet artillery. Each such complex includes a weapon, ammunition, instrumentation and means of transportation.

For range and power

The "power" of a weapon (this term may sound a little strange to a non-military ear) is determined by a combination of properties such as range, accuracy and accuracy of combat, rate of fire, and the power of the projectile at the target. The requirements for these characteristics of artillery have changed qualitatively many times. In the 1970s, for the main weapons of military artillery, which served as 105-155-mm howitzers, a firing range of up to 25 kilometers with an ordinary projectile and up to 30 kilometers with an active-rocket projectile was considered normal.

The increase in the firing range was achieved by a combination of long-known solutions at a new level - increasing the barrel length, the volume of the charging chamber, and improving the aerodynamic shape of the projectile. In addition, to reduce the negative effect of "suction" caused by rarefaction and swirling of air behind the flying projectile, a bottom notch was used (increasing the range by another 5-8%) or installing a bottom gas generator (increasing to 15-25%). For a greater increase in the flight range, the projectile can be supplied with a small jet engine - the so-called active-rocket projectile. The firing range can be increased by 30-50%, but the engine requires space in the case, and its work introduces additional disturbances in the flight of the projectile and increases dispersion, that is, it significantly reduces the accuracy of fire. Therefore, active rockets are used in some very special circumstances. In mortars, active-rocket mines give a greater increase in range - up to 100%.

In the 1980s, in connection with the development of reconnaissance, control and destruction means, as well as the increased mobility of troops, the requirements for the firing range increased. For example, the adoption within NATO of the concept of an "air-ground operation" in the United States and "fighting the second echelons" required an increase in the depth and effectiveness of engaging the enemy at all levels. The development of foreign military artillery in these years was greatly influenced by the research and development work of a small company "Space Research Corporation" under the leadership of the famous designer-artilleryman J. Bull. She, in particular, developed long-range ERFB type projectiles with a length of about 6 calibers with an initial speed of about 800 m / s, ready-made leading protrusions instead of thickening in the head part, reinforced with a leading belt - this gave an increase in range by 12-15%. For firing such projectiles, it was required to lengthen the barrel up to 45 calibers, increase the depth and change the steepness of the rifling. The first guns based on J. Bull's developments were produced by the Austrian corporation NORICUM (155-mm howitzer CNH-45) and the South African ARMSCOR (towed howitzer G-5, then the self-propelled G-6 with a firing range of up to 39 kilometers with a projectile with a gas generator).


1. Barrel

2. Cradle trunk

3. Hydraulic brake

4. Drive of vertical guidance

5. Torsion bar suspension

6. 360 degree rotation platform

7. A cylinder of compressed air to return the barrel to its initial position

8. Compensating cylinders and hydropneumatic knurler

9. Separate loading ammunition

10. Lever of the bolt mechanism

11. Trigger

12. Shutter

13. Drive of horizontal guidance

14. Gunner's place

15. Recoil device

In the early 1990s, within the framework of NATO, a decision was made to switch to a new system of ballistic characteristics of field artillery guns. The optimal type was recognized as a 155-mm howitzer with a 52-caliber barrel (that is, in fact, a howitzer-gun) and a charging chamber volume of 23 liters instead of the previously adopted 39 calibers and 18 liters. By the way, the same G-6 from Denel and Littleton Engineering was upgraded to the level of G-6-52 by installing a 52-caliber barrel and automated loading.

Work on a new generation of artillery was also launched in the Soviet Union. It was decided from the different calibers used before - 122, 152, 203 mm - to switch to a single 152 mm caliber in all links of artillery (divisional, army) with the unification of ammunition. The first success was the Msta howitzer, created by the Titan Central Design Bureau and the Barricades Production Association and put into service in 1989 - with a barrel length of 53 caliber (for comparison, the 152-mm howitzer 2S3 “Akatsiya” has a barrel length of 32.4 caliber). The howitzer ammunition amazes with its "assortment" of modern single-case loading rounds. High-explosive fragmentation projectile 3OF45 (43, 56 kilograms) of improved aerodynamic shape with a bottom notch is included in shots with a long-range propellant charge (initial speed 810 m / s, firing range up to 24, 7 kilometers), with a full variable charge (up to 19, 4 kilometers), with a reduced variable charge (up to 14, 37 kilometers). The 3OF61 projectile weighing 42, 86 kilograms with a gas generator gives a maximum firing range of 28, 9 kilometers. The 3O23 cluster projectile carries 40 cumulative fragmentation warheads, 3O13 - eight fragmentation elements. There is a projectile operator of radio interference in the VHF and HF bands 3RB30, special ammunition 3VDC8. Can also be used, on the one hand, the guided projectile 3OF39 "Krasnopol" and the corrected "Centimeter", on the other - the old shots of the D-20 and "Akatsia" howitzers. The firing range of the Msta in the 2S19M1 modification reached 41 kilometers!

In the United States, when upgrading the old 155-mm M109 howitzer to the level of M109A6 ("Palladin"), they limited themselves to the barrel length of 39 calibers - as in the towed M198 - and increased the firing range to 30 kilometers with a conventional projectile. But in the program of the 155-mm self-propelled artillery complex XM 2001/2002 "Crusader", a barrel length of 56 calibers, a firing range of more than 50 kilometers and separate-case loading with so-called "modular" variable propelling charges were laid. This "modularity" allows you to quickly gain the required charge, changing it over a wide range, and has a laser ignition system - a kind of attempt to bring the capabilities of a solid propellant weapon closer to the theoretical capabilities of liquid propellants. A relatively wide range of variable charges with an increase in the combat rate of fire, speed and aiming accuracy makes it possible to fire the same target along several conjugate trajectories - the approach of shells to a target from different directions greatly increases the likelihood of its destruction. And although the Crusader program was curtailed, the ammunition developed within its framework could be used in other 155-mm guns.

The possibilities of increasing the power of the action of shells at a target within the same calibers are far from exhausted. For example, the American 155-mm M795 projectile is equipped with a steel body with improved crushing ability, which, when bursting, produces fewer oversized fragments with a slow expansion velocity and useless fine "dust". In the South African XM9759A1, this is supplemented by a given crushing of the hull (semi-finished fragments) and a fuse with a programmable burst height.

On the other hand, warheads of a volumetric explosion and thermobaric ones are of increasing interest. So far, they are used mainly in low-velocity ammunition: this is due both to the sensitivity of the combat mixtures to overloads and the need for time for the formation of an aerosol cloud. But the improvement of mixtures (in particular, the transition to powder mixtures) and means of initiation can solve these problems.


152-mm guided missile "Krasnopol"

Under its own power

The scope and high maneuverability of the combat operations for which the armies were preparing - moreover, in the conditions of the expected use of weapons of mass destruction - spurred the development of self-propelled artillery. In the 60s and 70s of the XX century, a new generation entered service with the armies, the samples of which, having undergone a number of modernizations, remain in service to this day (Soviet 122-mm self-propelled howitzer 2S1 "Gvozdika" and 152-mm 2S3 "Akatsia", 152-mm gun 2S5 "Hyacinth", American 155-mm howitzer M109, French 155-mm gun F.1).

At one time it seemed that almost all military artillery would be self-propelled, and towed guns would go down in history. But each type has its own advantages and disadvantages.

The advantages of self-propelled artillery pieces (SAO) are obvious - they are, in particular, better mobility and maneuverability, better protection of the crew from bullets and shrapnel and weapons of mass destruction. Most modern self-propelled howitzers have a turret installation, allowing the fastest maneuvering fire (trajectories). An open installation is usually either aerotransportable (and the most lightweight at the same time, of course) or powerful long-range CAO, while their armored corps can still provide protection to the crew on the march or in position.

The bulk of modern CAO chassis, of course, is tracked. Since the 1960s, the development of special chassis for the CAO has been widely practiced, often using units of serial armored personnel carriers. But the tank chassis was not left either - an example of this is the French 155-mm F.1 and the Russian 152-mm 2S19 "Msta-S". This gives equal mobility and security of subunits, the ability to bring the CAO closer to the front line to increase the depth of enemy destruction, and the unification of equipment in the formation.

But more high-speed, economical and less bulky all-wheel drive wheeled chassis are also found - for example, the South African 155-mm G-6, the Czech 152-mm "Dana" (the only wheeled self-propelled howitzer in the former Warsaw Pact Organization) and its 155-mm successor " Zusanna ", as well as a 155-mm self-propelled howitzer (52 caliber)" Caesar "of the French company GIAT on the chassis" Unimog "2450 (6x6). Automation of the processes of transferring from the traveling position to the combat position and vice versa, preparing the data for firing, aiming, loading, allow, it is claimed, to deploy the gun to the position from the march, fire six shots and leave the position within about a minute! With a firing range of up to 42 kilometers, ample opportunities are created for "maneuvering with fire and wheels." A similar story - with the "Archer 08" Swedish "Bofors Defense" on the chassis "Volvo" (6x6) with a long-barreled 155-mm howitzer. Here, the automatic loader generally allows you to fire five shots in three seconds. Although the accuracy of the last shots is questionable, it is unlikely that it will be possible to restore the position of the barrel in such a short time. Some SAOs are made simply in the form of open installations like a self-propelled version of the South African towed G-5 - T-5-2000 "Condor" on the chassis "Tatra" (8x8) or the Dutch "Mobat" - 105-mm howitzers on the chassis DAF YA4400 (4x4) …

CAOs can carry very limited ammunition - the smaller the heavier the gun, so many of them, in addition to the automated or automatic feeding mechanism, are equipped with a special system for feeding shots from the ground (as in the Pion or Msta-S) or from another vehicle … The CAO and an armored transport-loading vehicle with a conveyor feed placed nearby are a picture of the possible operation of, say, the American self-propelled howitzer М109А6 "Palladin". In Israel, a towed trailer for 34 shots was created for the M109.

For all its advantages, the CAO has disadvantages. They are large, it is inconvenient to transport them by aviation, it is more difficult to camouflage them in position, and if the chassis is damaged, the entire weapon is actually out of order. In the mountains, say, "self-propelled guns" are generally inapplicable. In addition, the CAO is more expensive than the towed weapon, even taking into account the cost of the tractor. Therefore, conventional, non-self-propelled guns are still in service. It is no coincidence that in our country since the 1960s (when, after the recession of "rocket mania", the "classic" artillery regained its rights), most artillery systems were developed in both self-propelled and towed versions. For example, the same 2S19 "Msta-B" has a towed analogue 2A65 "Msta-B". Light towed howitzers are still in demand by the rapid reaction forces, airborne troops, and mountain infantry troops. The traditional caliber for them abroad is 105 millimeters. These tools are quite varied. So, the LG MkII howitzer of the French GIAT has a barrel length of 30 calibers and a firing range of 18.5 kilometers, a light gun of the British Royal Ordnance - 37 calibers and 21 kilometers, respectively, and the South African Denel's Leo - 57 calibers and 30 kilometers.

However, customers are showing increasing interest in towed guns of 152-155 mm caliber. An example of this is the experienced American light 155-mm howitzer LW-155 or the Russian 152-mm 2A61 "Pat-B" with circular fire, created by OKB-9 for 152-mm rounds of separate cartridge-case loading of all types.

In general, they try not to reduce the range and power requirements for towed field artillery guns. The need to quickly change firing positions during the battle and at the same time the complexity of such a movement led to the emergence of self-propelled guns (SDO). To do this, a small engine with a drive to the wheels of the carriage, steering and a simple dashboard is installed on the gun carriage, and the carriage itself in the folded position takes the form of a wagon. Do not confuse such a weapon with a "self-propelled gun" - on the march it will be towed by a tractor, and it will travel a short distance by itself, but at a low speed.

At first, they tried to make the front-line guns self-propelled, which is natural. The first SDOs were created in the USSR after the Great Patriotic War - 57-mm cannon SD-57 or 85-mm SD-44. With the development of means of destruction, on the one hand, and the capabilities of light power plants, on the other, heavier and longer-range guns began to be made self-propelled. And among modern SDOs we will see long-barreled 155-mm howitzers - the British-German-Italian FH-70, the South African G-5, the Swedish FH-77A, the Singapore FH-88, the French TR, the Chinese WA021. To increase the survivability of the gun, measures are being taken to increase the speed of self-propulsion - for example, the 4-wheeled carriage of the experienced 155-mm LWSPH Singapore Technologies howitzer allows movement of 500 meters at a speed of up to 80 km / h!


203-mm self-propelled gun 2S7 "Pion", USSR. Barrel length - 50 calibers, weight 49 tons, maximum firing range of an active reactive high-explosive fragmentation projectile (102 kg) - up to 55 km, crew - 7 people

On tanks - direct fire

Neither recoilless guns nor anti-tank missile systems, which turned out to be much more effective, could replace the classic anti-tank guns. Of course, cumulative warheads of recoilless shells, rocket-propelled grenades or anti-tank guided missiles have significant advantages. But, on the other hand, the development of tank armor was directed against them. Therefore, it is not a bad idea to supplement the aforementioned means with an armor-piercing sub-caliber projectile of a conventional cannon - the very "crowbar" against which, as you know, there is "no reception." It was he who could ensure reliable defeat of modern tanks.

Typical in this regard are the Soviet 100-mm smoothbore guns T-12 (2A19) and MT-12 (2A29), and with the latter, in addition to subcaliber, cumulative and high-explosive fragmentation projectiles, the Kastet guided weapon system can be used. The return to smooth-bore guns is not at all an anachronism and not a desire to "reduce the cost" of the system too much. A smooth barrel is more tenacious, allows you to shoot non-rotating, feathered cumulative projectiles, with reliable obturation (preventing the breakthrough of powder gases), achieve high initial velocities due to a greater value of gas pressure and less resistance to movement, and shoot guided projectiles.

However, with modern means of reconnaissance of ground targets and fire control, an anti-tank gun that has discovered itself will very soon be subjected not only to return fire from tank guns and small arms, but also to artillery and aircraft weapons strikes. In addition, the calculation of such a gun is not covered in any way and will most likely be "covered" by enemy fire. A self-propelled gun, of course, has more chances of survival than one that is stationary in place, but at a speed of 5-10 km / h, this increase is not so significant. This limits the use of such weapons.

On the other hand, fully armored self-propelled anti-tank guns with a turret mount are still of great interest. These are, for example, the Swedish 90-mm Ikv91 and 105-mm Ikv91-105, and the Russian amphibious airborne SPTP 2S25 "Sprut-SD" 2005, built on the basis of the 125-mm smoothbore tank gun 2A75. Its ammunition load includes shots with armor-piercing subcaliber shells with a detachable pallet and with a 9M119 ATGM fired through the barrel of a cannon. However, here self-propelled artillery is already merging with light tanks.

Computerization of processes

Modern "instrumental armament" transforms individual artillery complexes and subunits into independent reconnaissance and strike complexes. For example, in the USA, when upgrading the 155-mm М109 А2 / А3 to the level of М109А6 (except for the barrel extended to 47 calibers with modified rifling, a new set of charges and an improved chassis), a new fire control system based on an on-board computer, an autonomous navigation and topographic reference system was installed, new radio station.

By the way, the combination of ballistic solutions with modern reconnaissance systems (including unmanned aerial vehicles) and control allows artillery complexes and units to ensure the destruction of targets at ranges of up to 50 kilometers. And this is greatly facilitated by the widespread introduction of information technologies. They became the basis for the creation of a unified reconnaissance and fire system at the beginning of the 21st century. Now this is one of the main directions of the development of artillery.

Its most important condition is an effective automated control system (ACS), covering all processes - target reconnaissance, data processing and transmission of information to fire control centers, continuous collection of data on the position and state of fire weapons, setting tasks, calling, adjusting and ceasing fire, assessing results. Terminal devices of such a system are installed on command vehicles of battalions and batteries, reconnaissance vehicles, mobile command posts, command-observation and command-staff posts (united by the concept of “control vehicles”), individual guns, as well as on air vehicles - for example, an airplane or an unmanned aircraft - and are connected by radio and cable communication lines. Computers process information about targets, meteorological conditions, position and condition of batteries and individual fire weapons, the state of support, as well as the results of firing, generate data taking into account the ballistic characteristics of guns and launchers, and manage the exchange of coded information. Even without changing the range and firing accuracy of the guns themselves, the ACS can increase the effectiveness of the fire of battalions and batteries by 2-5 times.

According to Russian experts, the lack of modern automated control systems and sufficient reconnaissance and communications equipment does not allow artillery to realize more than 50% of its potential capabilities. In a rapidly changing operational-combat situation, a non-automated control system, with all the efforts and qualifications of its participants, timely processes and takes into account no more than 20% of the available information. That is, the gun crews simply do not have time to respond to most of the targets identified.

The necessary systems and means have been created and are ready for widespread implementation at least at the level of, if not a single reconnaissance and fire system, then reconnaissance and fire complexes. Thus, the combat work of the Msta-S and Msta-B howitzers as part of the reconnaissance and fire complex is provided by the Zoo-1 self-propelled reconnaissance complex, command posts and control vehicles on self-propelled armored chassis. The Zoo-1 radar reconnaissance system is used to determine the coordinates of enemy artillery firing positions and can simultaneously detect up to 12 firing systems at a distance of up to 40 kilometers. Means "Zoo-1", "Credo-1E" are technically and informationally (that is, "hardware" and software) interfaced with the combat control facilities of cannon and rocket artillery "Machine-M2", "Kapustnik-BM".

The fire control system of the Kapustnik-BM battalion will allow opening fire on an unplanned target in 40-50 seconds after its detection and will be able to simultaneously process information about 50 targets at once, while working with its own and attached ground and air reconnaissance means, as well as with information from a superior. Topographic location is carried out immediately after stopping to take positions (here, the use of a satellite navigation system such as GLONASS is of particular importance). Through the terminals of the automatic control system on the fire weapons, the calculations receive target designation and data for firing, through them, information about the state of the fire weapons themselves, the ammunition load, etc. is transmitted to the control vehicles. up to 3 kilometers at night (this is quite enough in conditions of local conflicts) and produce laser illumination of targets from a distance of 7 kilometers. And together with external reconnaissance means and divisions of cannon and rocket artillery, such an automated control system, in one combination or another, will turn into a reconnaissance and firing complex with a much greater depth of both reconnaissance and defeat.

Artillery of the XXI century
Artillery of the XXI century

This is what 152-mm howitzers fire: the 3OF61 high-explosive fragmentation projectile with a bottom gas generator, the 3OF25 projectile, the 3-O-23 cluster projectile with cumulative fragmentation submunitions, the 3RB30 projectile for radio interference

About shells

The other side of the "intellectualization" of artillery is the introduction of high-precision artillery ammunition with targeting at the end of the trajectory. Despite the qualitative improvements in artillery over the past quarter century, the consumption of conventional shells for solving typical tasks remains too high. Meanwhile, the use of guided and corrected projectiles in 155-mm or 152-mm howitzers can reduce ammunition consumption by 40-50 times, and the time of hitting targets by 3-5 times. From the control systems, two main directions emerged - shells with semi-active guidance along the reflected laser beam and shells with automatic guidance (self-aiming). The projectile will "steer" in the final section of the trajectory using folding aerodynamic rudders or an impulse rocket engine. Of course, such a projectile should not differ in size and configuration from the "usual" one - after all, they will be fired from a conventional gun.

Guidance by the reflected laser beam is implemented in the American 155-mm Copperhead projectile, the Russian 152-mm Krasnopol, 122-mm Kitolov-2M and 120-mm Kitolov-2. This method of guidance allows the use of ammunition against targets of different types (combat vehicle, command or observation post, firearm, structure). The Krasnopol-M1 projectile with an inertial control system in the middle section and guidance along the reflected laser beam at the final one with a firing range of up to 22-25 kilometers has a target hit probability of up to 0.8-0.9, including moving targets. But at the same time, not far from the target should be an observer-gunner with a laser illumination device. This makes the gunner vulnerable, especially if the enemy has laser radiation sensors. The Copperhead projectile, for example, requires target illumination for 15 seconds, Copperhead-2 with a combined (laser and thermal) seeker (GOS) - for 7 seconds. Another limitation is that in low cloud cover, for example, the projectile may simply “not have time” to target the reflected beam.

Apparently, this is why the NATO countries preferred to engage in self-aiming ammunition, primarily anti-tank ammunition. Guided anti-tank and cluster shells with self-targeting submunitions are becoming an obligatory and very essential part of the ammunition load.

An example is the SADARM-type cluster munition with self-aiming elements that hit the target from above. The projectile flies to the area of the reconnoitered target along the usual ballistic trajectory. On its descending branch at a given height, combat elements are alternately thrown out. Each element throws a parachute or opens its wings, which slow down its descent and put it into autorotation mode with an angle to the vertical. At an altitude of 100-150 meters, the combat element's sensors begin scanning the terrain along a converging spiral. When the sensor detects and identifies a target, a "shock cumulative cannonball" is fired in its direction. For example, the American SADARM 155-mm cluster projectile and the German SMArt-155 each carry two combat elements with combined sensors (infrared dual-band and radar channels), they can be fired at ranges, respectively, up to 22 and 24 kilometers. The Swedish 155-mm BONUS projectile is equipped with two elements with infrared (IR) sensors, and due to the bottom generator it flies up to 26 kilometers. The Russian self-aiming "Motiv-3M" is equipped with two-spectrum IR and radar sensors that allow detecting a camouflaged target in jamming conditions. Its "cumulative core" penetrates armor up to 100 millimeters, that is, "Motiv" is designed to defeat promising tanks with reinforced roof protection.


Diagram of the use of the "Kitolov-2M" guided projectile with guidance along the reflected laser beam

The main disadvantage of self-aiming ammunition is its narrow specialization. They are designed to defeat only tanks and combat vehicles, while the ability to "cut off" false targets is still insufficient. For modern local conflicts, when targets that are important to defeat can be very diverse, this is not yet a “flexible” system. Note that foreign guided projectiles mainly have a cumulative warhead, and Soviet (Russian) ones have high-explosive fragmentation. In the context of local "anti-guerrilla" actions, this turned out to be very useful.

Within the framework of the program of the 155-mm complex "Crusader", which was mentioned above, the XM982 "Excalibur" guided projectile was developed. It is equipped with an inertial guidance system in the middle segment of the trajectory and a correction system using the satellite navigation network NAVSTAR in the final segment. The warhead of the "Excalibur" is modular: it can include, as appropriate, 64 fragmentation warheads, two self-aiming warheads, and a concrete-piercing element. Since this "smart" projectile can glide, the firing range is increased to 57 kilometers (from the "Crusader") or 40 kilometers (from the M109A6 "Palladin"), and the use of the existing navigation network makes a gunner with an illumination device in the target area seemingly unnecessary.

In the 155-mm TCM shell of the Swedish "Bofors Defense", correction is used at the end of the trajectory, also with the use of satellite navigation and with impulse steering motors. But the enemy's targeting jamming to the radio navigation system can significantly reduce the accuracy of the defeat, and advanced gunners may still be needed. The Russian high-explosive 152-mm projectile "Centimeter" and the 240-mm mine "Smelchak" are also corrected with impulse (missile) correction at the end of the trajectory, but they are guided by the reflected laser beam. Guided ammunition is cheaper than guided ammunition, and in addition, they can be used in the worst atmospheric conditions. They fly along a ballistic trajectory and in case of failure of the correction system, they will fall closer to the target than the guided projectile that left the trajectory. The disadvantages are a shorter firing range, since at a long range the correction system may no longer cope with the accumulated deviation from the target.

It is possible to reduce the gunner's vulnerability by equipping the laser rangefinder with a stabilization system and installing it on an armored personnel carrier, helicopter or UAV, by increasing the angle of capture of the homing beam of a projectile or mine - then the illumination can be produced while on the move. It is almost impossible to hide from such artillery fire.

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