Springfield is a child of the Mauser (part 3)

Springfield is a child of the Mauser (part 3)
Springfield is a child of the Mauser (part 3)
Anonim

It has always been the case that someone did something somewhat better than others. And others bowed to this man and asked to share (even for money!) … "sturgeon of the first freshness." And then they proudly said: "I wear the Prado!" And only people with a low level of culture or with complexes try to pass off someone else's as their own, and they make it worse for themselves, because the truth, like an awl in a sack, cannot be hidden, but the attitude towards such "comrades" is changing, since people do not like when they are being deceived. Meanwhile, what is there to be ashamed of? This is normal! For example, in the United States, how many years did they manage with the Springfield rifle of 1873, then they used the Krag-Jorgensen rifle and everything was fine … in peacetime, but it came to shots and it turned out that the Krag did not suitable for the German Mauser!

Image

Fort Slocum. American infantrymen are mastering the Springfield rifle.

It turned out that the soldiers of the US Army sent to Cuba, armed with long-outdated Springfield M1873.45-70 caliber single charges (from the times of the wars with the Indians in the Wild West!), And some of the still new Krag-Jorgensen M1892 and M1898 caliber.30 -40, alas, are noticeably inferior to the troops of the "aborigines" who used 7-mm Mauser rifles. Before that, everything was fine with the US Army. But as soon as the losses, and unjustified ones, began to grow, the journalists began to write about it, and the senators made inquiries (this is what, by the way, democracy is good for!) "And decided -" we need to change the rifle! " And it was a courageous decision, because the old "leggings" had not served for ten years, and it was necessary to write off practically new rifles and in large quantities!

Image

In the same place. Training in rifle techniques.

Be that as it may, and after heated debate in the Senate and in the War Department, the decision to replace the rifle was made, and the state arsenal in Springfield was instructed to develop a new rifle and a cartridge for it. And since this decision was made in 1900, the Americans had plenty to choose from (a whole arsenal from different countries of the world!) And what to take as a basis, if we were to copy someone else's samples.

Image

Rifle "Springfield" М1903 with cartridges.

And who will guess from one time on which rifle, as a model for copying, they stopped? Of course, there is nothing to think about: on a Paul Mauser rifle! But all the rights to it, both in detail and "in general" belonged to the Mauser firm and … for the use of its patents, the Americans paid the Germans a decent amount of $ 200,000 - the money was very large at that time.

First of all, they made a cartridge that received a blunt-point sheathed bullet weighing 14.2 grams and with a long bottle-shaped sleeve without a welt. The speed of such a bullet when flying out of the barrel reached 670 m / s - which was 100 m / s more than the bullet of the "Krag-Jorgensen" rifle, which fired a.30-40 cartridge. As for the rifle, it was, in fact, a "clone" of the Mauser rifle, although, of course, it differed from it in details. It was tested and accepted into service under the designation "US Rifle,.30 caliber, M1903", and the cartridge, respectively, was named so: "cartridge, ball,.30 caliber, M1903".

Image

Springfield rifle at the Swedish Army Museum, Stockholm.

The rifle was released by an experimental batch and sent to the troops, but then in 1905 it was again withdrawn by a personal order of the President of the United States Theodore Roosevelt and returned to the manufacturing plant. The reason is a needle-type bayonet, which the president ordered to be replaced with a bladed one.But then the Germans once again surprised the world and adopted a new cartridge with a sharpened bullet. Accepting their idea unconditionally, the Americans in 1906 adopted a similar cartridge "cartridge, ball,.30 caliber, M1906", known as.30-06. From the previous model of 1903 (now designated as.30-03), the.30-06 cartridge was distinguished by a new pointed shell bullet of lighter weight (9.6 grams), but with a higher initial velocity of about 880 m / s. On the old rifles, they had to put new sights under a new cartridge, which is why they were delayed with delivery to the troops.

Springfield is a child of the Mauser (part 3)

World War I. American sniper with "Spearingfield".

The production of a new rifle was organized at once at two state arms factories: Springfield and Rock Island (Springfield armory and Rock Island armory), but no matter how hard they tried, and already during the First World War, the US Expeditionary Force in Europe faced such a problem as lack of M1903 rifles. Because of these Americans, the M1917 rifle had to be urgently adopted - an alteration of the British Anfield P-14 rifle for the same.30-06 cartridge. There were also technological defects, which, however, were completely eliminated by 1918.

Image

Springfield rifle device.

In 1929, the rifle underwent modernization. This is how the M1903A1 variant appeared, in which, unlike the M1903, the stock had a semi-pistol butt neck instead of a straight one - the so-called “C stock” type stock. But few of them were released, since in 1936 the Garanda M1 self-loading rifle was officially adopted in the United States.

Image

Rifle M1903A4.

But in the Second World War, the shortage of rifles in the United States was repeated, and the production of the M1903 was resumed at the arms factories of Remington Arms and … the Smith-Corona Typewriters factory of typewriters. Then, in 1942, the Remington company developed an extremely simplified version of the M1903A3 rifle, in which there were many stamped parts and a diopter sight. In addition, on its basis, Remington also developed the first American special rifle for snipers, the M1903A4, which had an optical sight with a magnification of 2.5X and a high-quality barrel, on which conventional sights were missing. This M1903A4 sample turned out to be the longest-lived in the US Army: the rifle was also used in the 1960s, when it was replaced by new M21 sniper rifles for the standard NATO 7.62-mm caliber.

Image

Bandolier M1923.

The main variants of the rifle were two: the M1903 and the M1903 Mark 1 rifle, which was adopted in 1918, adapted to install the "Pedersen device" on it, which turned a conventional rifle into a self-loading rifle chambered for low power. It could be installed in place of the standard shutter and so to shoot with special 7.62 mm cartridges with a cylindrical sleeve. The magazine for 40 rounds was inserted from above. A lot of them were made - 60,000 pieces, but the war had already ended by this time, and besides, this device turned out to be very technically imperfect. As a result, it was removed from service, and the rifles were converted to the same standard.

Image

Bolt, grip and butt neck.

The next option was the M1903A2 rifle - a device for firing guns through the barrel. This saved ammunition and reduced wear on the barrel of guns in peacetime.

As for the design of the M1903 rifle itself, everything was "like everyone else's." It was an ordinary magazine rifle with manual shutter control and barrel locking by turning it. The bolt had two lugs in the front and another additional one in the rear, as well as a massive non-rotating extractor that captured the groove on the sleeve when the next cartridge was fed from the store. That is, everything is like on Mauser rifles, but there were differences. So, the back stop with the shutter locked was located in a vertical position, and not in a horizontal position, because it was believed that in the latter case, the spread of shots to the left and right would increase. The extractor itself was shortened a little.Also, the rear jumper on the receiver, where the guides for the clips were, made a large cutout so that the backgauge would pass through it. The fuse is also of the Mauser type, in the rear of the bolt, and under it is the protruding head of the striker. The magazine cutoff was on the left and worked as a shutter travel stop. That is, it limited the shutter travel back just enough that it was enough to remove the spent cartridge case, but the shutter could not capture a new cartridge. That is, the dreams of the military about saving ammunition were realized here, and … it is obvious that they dreamed about it all over the world!

Image

The extractor tooth is clearly visible (left), markings on the breech of the barrel, sighting frame.

The store is also of the Mauser type, with a checkerboard cartridge resolution. It could be loaded with one cartridge at a time, and with the help of a plate holder for five rounds. The rifle stock is wooden, continuous, with a long upper barrel plate. Some rifles had a straight stock neck, some had a semi-pistol grip. The rifle relied on a bayonet-knife of the 1905 model.

Image

Closed shutter. The handle is bent down, which is convenient, and is carried back, which provides a high rate of fire for rifles with rotary-type manual locks.

The M1903 and M1903A1 rifles had sights of the traditional type. The М1903А3 rifle had a diopter rear sight located in the rear of the receiver, which was adjustable in range. The M1903A4 sniper rifle did not have open sights; instead, a bracket with an M73B1 optical sight of 2.5X magnification was installed.

Image

The shutter is open.

The disadvantages of the design are as follows: the hammer was cocked when the bolt was opened, which required more hand work, since at the same time the sleeve in the chamber was also displaced; the receiver does not have such a strong bridge at the back as in the Mauser of 1893-1898; for some reason, the receiver does not have a recess for the thumb, which was usually made for ease of loading; a simple stock neck is more characteristic of early rather than later rifles. However, the last statement is very subjective - someone likes it this way, someone else! The rest of the rifle was designed in a completely satisfactory manner. She shot without a bayonet, which was worn separately from her in a scabbard at the waist. The rifle, which is important, was not heavy - its weight was 3.94 kg without cartridges. Length: 1097 mm. That is, it was comfortable enough to operate in narrow places and at the same time quite suitable for participation in bayonet combat.

Image

Rifle 1930 1903A1.

That is, having adopted this rifle, the Americans did not surpass, but at least equal in their combat capabilities with the German army. Now the US infantry fired about the same number of bullets per minute as the German, with the same accuracy and the same distance!

P.S. The author is grateful to TD Collector for the opportunity to use her photographs of the Springfield rifle.

Popular by topic