At the beginning of the 20th century, the main type of individual small arms for officers and some categories of lower ranks of the Russian army was a revolver. The name of this weapon comes from the Latin word revolve (to rotate) and reflects the main feature of the revolver - the presence of a rotating drum with chambers (sockets), which are both containers for cartridges and the chamber of the revolver barrel. The rotation of the drum (and the supply of the next cartridge with the chamber) is carried out by the shooter himself by pressing the trigger.
For the first time in Russia at a high level, the issue of replacing smooth-bore pistols that were then in service with revolvers was raised shortly after the end of the Crimean War of 1853-1856, during which the lag of the Russian army in almost all types of small arms from the armies of other European countries was revealed. In 1859, at the request of Minister of War D. A. Milyukov, the Weapons Commission of the Artillery Committee of the Main Artillery Directorate began comparative tests of the latest models of foreign-made revolvers.
The French revolver Lefaucheux M 1853 was recognized as the best. The commission noted the higher practical rate of fire of revolvers in comparison with single-shot pistols, their increased reliability and constant readiness to fire.
Lefaucheux M 1853
However, when it came to the adoption of revolvers into service, it turned out that the state did not have the necessary financial resources for this. For this reason, officers of the army and guard were asked to acquire these revolvers at their own expense. An exception was made only for the gendarme corps: 7100 such revolvers were purchased for it.
It should be noted that gentlemen officers were in no hurry to part with their usual pistols, and the Armory Commission, meanwhile, closely followed all new models of revolvers that appeared on the arms markets of Europe and America. In the late 1860s. the attention of the commission was attracted by the revolver. 44 American First Model of the American firm Smith and Wesson. In the United States, this revolver was considered the best example of short-barreled personal self-defense weapons. It was distinguished by the presence of an automatic extractor, high combat accuracy and a fairly powerful ammunition. Therefore, it is not surprising that the Armory Commission recognized the revolver as quite suitable for adoption by the Russian army. In 1871, the necessary funds were found to purchase 20,000 revolvers.44 American First Model, which received the designation in the Russian army "4, 2-line Smith-Wesson revolver of the 1st sample."
4, 2-line Smith-Wesson revolver 1st sample
In the revolvers of the next batch, produced in 1872-1874, at the request of the specialists of the Russian Army, some changes were made regarding the design of both the revolver itself and its chamber. The revolvers of this batch had the American designation number 3 Russian First Model. Of the 25,179 such revolvers, 20,014 units were sent to Russia.
The modernization of the revolver No. 3 Russian First Model in the USA led to the creation of an improved 2nd model of the revolver (No. 3 Russian Second Model), and in 1880 the Russian army received a revolver of the 3rd model with a shorter barrel and a switchable automatic extractor.
The firm "Smith-Wesson" supplied to Russia about 131,000 revolvers of three designs, but even more were manufactured in Russia itself. In 1885, at the Imperial Tula Arms Plant, licensed production of the 3rd model revolver was started, which continued until 1889. During these years, about 200,000 revolvers were produced. Another 100,000 units were manufactured for the Russian army by the German company Ludwig Loewe und K °.
In total, the Russian army received a little more than 470,000 Smith-Wesson revolvers of various designs, but they did not remain the main model of army short-barreled weapons for long. The fact is that the cartridges equipped with black powder with a shellless bullet used in these revolvers did not provide the same high ballistic qualities as cartridges with smokeless powder developed in the late 1880s. In addition, with the adoption of the 3-line rifle mod. In 1891, the Ministry of War came to a decision to unify the officers' personal weapons with it in caliber.
Since there were no sufficiently perfect developments in this area in Russia, in the early 1890s. new revolvers developed by foreign firms were tested in accordance with the tactical and technical requirements of the Russian War Ministry. It is noteworthy that these requirements excluded the presence of an automatic spent cartridge extractor and a self-cocking mechanism in the revolver, which allows firing without manually cocking the trigger, but only by pressing the trigger.
Thus, the practical rate of fire was deliberately reduced and the fighting qualities of the weapon deteriorated, but for the War Ministry, it was more important to reduce the cost of manufacturing revolvers and save ammunition.
Based on the results of testing various types of revolvers, preference was given to two Belgian revolvers designed by Henry Pieper and Leon Nagant. Revolvers of these designers, modified in accordance with the remarks of the Russian military, were tested in 1893-1894. Pieper's revolver was rejected due to low-power cartridges, the bullets of which in some cases did not penetrate even one pine plank 1 inch (25.4 mm) thick. The bullet of the revolver of the Nagant system pierced five such boards, its design met all the requirements of the War Department.
On May 13, 1895, Emperor Nicholas II signed a decree on the adoption of this revolver by the Russian army under the name “3-line revolver of the Nagant system mod. 1895.
3-line revolver of the Nagant system mod. 1895 g.
The contract for the manufacture of the first batch of 20,000 revolvers was issued to the Belgian firm Manufacture d'Armes Nagant Freres in 1895. The contract stipulated that this firm would also provide technical assistance in the development of the production of revolvers arr. 1895 at the Tula Arms Factory.
The first revolvers of Tula production appeared in 1898. In total, before the start of the First World War, the Russian army received 424 434 revolvers mod. 1895, and in the period from 1914 to 1917 - 474 800 units. In 1918-1920. The Tula Arms Plant produced another 175,115 revolvers.
During the Civil War, revolvers arr. 1895 were in service with both the White and Red armies. In the Red Army, the revolver remained the only standard model of short-barreled weapons until 1931, when the first thousand TT pistols were manufactured. Although the TT was adopted by the Red Army instead of the revolver arr. 1895, due to a number of objective and subjective reasons, both systems were produced in parallel until 1945, when the revolver finally gave way to the more efficient and easy-to-use TT pistol. Revolvers removed from the armament of the Red Army have been used for quite a long time in the police and non-departmental security units.
The "rebirth" of the revolver took place in the 1990s, when private security companies (the so-called legal entities with special statutory tasks) began to be created in the Russian Federation, which were allowed to store and use short- and long-barreled service firearms. Relatively easy to use, reliable and constantly ready to open fire, revolvers were recognized as the best type of service weapon. Already in 1994, the release of the revolver arr. In 1895, the original version was renewed at the Izhevsk Mechanical Plant. New models of domestic revolvers were also created, in which the latest achievements in the field of both the design of the weapon itself and the technology of its production were implemented.
In particular, in the revolver AEK-906 "Rhino" of the Kovrov Mechanical Plant, a new layout is used with the location of the barrel and the drum retainer in the lower part of the frame, and the drum axis above the barrel. This scheme made it possible to create a weapon with excellent balance and accuracy of fire. Balance is achieved by bringing the center of gravity of the revolver closer to the axis of the barrel bore and lowering the firing line relative to the shooter's hand, which reduces the recoil shoulder. This quality is especially valuable when conducting rapid fire to kill, since when firing, the revolver throwing up is reduced. This contributes to the rapid restoration of the position of the revolver for aiming and firing the next shot.
The layout of the R-92 revolver of the Tula Instrument-Making Design Bureau (KBP) is also unusual. It is sometimes called "pistol" - to reduce the size of the weapon in order to ensure its hidden carrying, the drum assembly and barrel are displaced towards the handle. Such a constructive solution not only made it possible to reduce the length of the revolver, but also had a positive effect on the convenience of aiming and firing from it, since the center of gravity was shifted to the shooter's hand.
The design of the trigger mechanism of this revolver also has its own characteristics. Its trigger does not turn when pressed, but moves backward, interacting with the trigger through the lever. Thus, a slight increase in shooting accuracy is provided.
An interesting feature of some modern Russian revolvers is that they are designed for the pistol cartridge 9 × 18 mm PM. The fact is that huge mobilization stocks of such cartridges have been created in the Russian Federation, so the creation of a new weapon for this cartridge seemed to be a completely reasonable decision. The difficulty in developing revolvers for this cartridge lies in the fact that its sleeve does not have a protruding rim, so you have to use special clips for fast loading. For example, such clips are designed for revolvers AEK-906 "Rhino", OTs-01 "Cobalt" and R-92. However, the designers have provided for the possibility of loading these revolvers without clips, but this requires a much greater investment of time.
It should be noted that along with pistol cartridges, other unusual ammunition is used in Russian revolvers.
Thus, the DOG-1 revolver of the Tinta innovation enterprise and the Izhevsk Technical University fires cartridges created on the basis of a 12.5 × 35 mm rifle cartridge. A fairly wide range of such cartridges has been developed: with lead or plastic bullets, lighting and signal light cartridges, cartridge for sound signals.
The ammunition load of the OTs-20 "Gnome" revolver of the TsKIB SOO enterprise includes powerful cartridges of 12, 5 × 40 mm, equipped with a steel or lead bullet weighing 11 and 16 g, respectively. The steel bullet penetrates 3 mm thick steel sheet at a distance of 50 m, and the lead bullet has an extremely powerful stopping effect. There is also a cartridge filled with 16 lead pellets. It reliably ensures the defeat of group targets.
Perhaps the most unusual cartridge is used in the OTs-38 revolver, developed by the famous Russian gunsmith I. Ya. Stechkin for the special forces of the Ministry of Internal Affairs and the FSB. This is a special cartridge SP.4, the flangeless sleeve of which completely hides a cylindrical steel bullet and a special piston. When fired, the piston acts on the bullet right up to its exit from the sleeve, but is completely wedged in the barrel of the sleeve and does not move further. As a result, the propellant gases are locked in the sleeve, which ensures the noiselessness of the shot and the complete absence of flame. At the same time, as in all revolvers, the spent cartridge case remains in the drum, and is not extracted, as is the case when firing from a self-loading pistol. This makes it difficult to identify weapons, which is important when conducting special operations.
Along with the creation of revolvers for various, sometimes exotic ammunition, Russian gunsmiths widely use new grades of steel and light alloys in their developments. For example, the MR-411 Latina revolver of the Izhevsk Mechanical Plant is assembled on a light alloy frame. Work is also underway to use high-strength plastics.
Thus, it can be stated that Russian revolvers have a future.
Revolver of the Nagant system mod. 1895 g
At the end of the 19th century, the Russian army was armed with 4, 2-line (10, 67 mm) Smith-Wesson revolvers of three designs. It was a very good weapon of the breaking scheme for its time, providing automatic extraction of spent cartridges from the drum when reloading. The disadvantages of these revolvers included a large mass, a non-self-cocking firing mechanism, in which the shooter cocked the hammer manually before each shot, and, most importantly, cartridges equipped with black powder. A shellless bullet of such a cartridge at a distance of 25 m pierced three pine boards 1 inch thick (25, 4 mm), while for bullets of revolving cartridges with smokeless powder, five such boards were not the limit. However, the main reason that prompted the Russian War Ministry to announce a competition for a new army revolver was the transition of the Russian army to a small arms caliber in 3 lines (7, 62 mm). A rifle was put into service under a cartridge of this caliber in 1891; it seemed logical that the army's armament included a revolver of the same caliber.
To hold an open competition for a new 7, 62 mm revolver, the War Ministry in 1892 published tactical and technical requirements, according to which “a military revolver must have such a fight that one bullet at a distance of 50 steps to stop a horse. If the bullet pierces four to five inch boards, then the force of the fight is sufficient. The revolver also had to have a mass of 0, 82–0, 90 kg, the muzzle velocity of the bullet was required at least 300 m / s with good firing accuracy.
It is noteworthy that in order to simplify the design and reduce the cost of manufacturing the revolver, it was necessary to abandon the automatic extraction of the casings during reloading and not to use the self-cocking firing mechanism, because it "adversely affects accuracy." The real reason for these requirements, which reduce the practical rate of fire of the revolver and deliberately put the Russian soldiers in worse conditions compared to other European armies, was the desire to reduce the consumption of ammunition.
According to the results of the competition, the non-self-cocking revolver of the design of the Belgian gunsmith Leon Nagant was recognized as the best, however, during the military tests carried out in the cavalry and artillery officer schools, the opinion was expressed that the revolver should still be self-cocking, as was customary in all European armies.
The decree on the adoption of the revolver into service with the Russian army was signed by Emperor Nicholas II on May 13, 1895. In this case, the opinion of the officers was taken into account as follows: the revolver should be produced with a self-cocking firing mechanism for officers, and with a non-self-cocking firing mechanism - for lower ranks, who during the battle supposedly have less control over their actions and tend to waste ammunition.
Only the self-cocking version of the revolver was adopted by the Red Army.
In the design of the revolver, a very successful combination of high firepower with sufficient accuracy, low weight and acceptable dimensions was achieved with the simplicity of the device, reliability and high manufacturability in mass production. The fundamental design feature of the revolver of the Nagant system is that at the time of the shot, the drum with the next cartridge is not only accurately positioned against the bullet entrance of the barrel, but also rigidly engages with it, forming a single whole. This made it possible to almost completely eliminate the breakthrough of powder gases into the gap between the barrel and the front of the drum. As a result, the accuracy of the battle became higher than that of revolvers of other systems.
A special window is located on the right side of the frame for equipping a 7-round drum with cartridges. The cartridges are inserted one by one when the next charging chamber appears in the opening of the window. For the extraction of spent cartridges, produced through the same window, a rotary ramrod is used. Thus, it was this scheme of loading and unloading the revolver that determined the main drawback of the revolver of the Nagant system - the long process of reloading the weapon in conditions of fire contact with the enemy.
The revolver is fired with 7.62 mm cartridges consisting of a cylindrical brass flanged sleeve 38.7 mm long with a Berdan capsule, a charge of smoky or smokeless powder and a bullet weighing 7 g and 16.5 mm long with a cupronickel sheath and lead antimony core. Its leading part is tapered, with a front diameter of 7.77 mm and 7.22 mm at the back. To increase the stopping effect, the bullet has a pad on the tip with a diameter of about 4 mm. The bullet is completely recessed in the sleeve, and the platform is 1, 25-2, 5 mm below the upper edge of the sleeve. The charge consisted of smoky brown gunpowder or smokeless gunpowder "R" (revolving), weighing 0, 54-0, 89 g, depending on the batch. At a maximum pressure of 1085 kg / cm 2, the bullet acquired a velocity of 265–285 m / s in the bore of the revolver.
It should be noted that the relatively small powder charge makes the cartridge sensitive to temperature changes. So, in severe frost, the initial speed of the bullet drops to 220 m / s, which makes it ineffective to shoot at the enemy in warm winter clothing (sheepskin coat or sheepskin coat).
For aiming when shooting, a slot on the frame of the revolver and a detachable front sight are used. The latter has legs that fit tightly into the groove of the front sight base on the barrel. During production, the shape of the front sight was repeatedly changed. At first, it was semicircular, then it was given a more technologically simple rectangular shape. However, later they were forced to abandon it and return to the previous form of the front sight, but with a "truncated" upper part, more convenient for aiming.
Along with self-cocking and non-self-cocking versions of the revolver arr. In 1895, the following modifications are also known:
• revolver-carbine for the body of the border guard, distinguished by a barrel extended to 300 mm and an integral wooden butt;
• commander's revolver, produced since 1927 for armament
• the operational staff of the OGPU and NKVD troops, is distinguished by a barrel shortened to 85 mm and a smaller handle;
• revolver for silent and flameless shooting, equipped with a BRAMIT silencer (by the Mitin brothers);
• training revolver of the Nagan-Smirnovsky system for 5, 6 mm rimfire cartridge, produced in the 1930s;
• sports revolver, developed in 1953 by the designers of the TsKIB SOO enterprise for the new 7, 62 × 38 mm target cartridge "V-1";
• sports target revolvers TOZ-36 and TOZ-49, produced in the 1960-1970s. These revolvers have a non-self-cocking firing mechanism, improved sights and an orthopedic grip;
• revolver R.1 "Naganych" in versions for firing with gas or traumatic cartridges, produced by the Izhevsk Machine-Building Plant since 2004.
In just 45 years (from 1900 to 1945), Russian soldiers received more than 2,600,000 revolvers of the Nagant system mod. 1895 g.
DOG-1 belongs to the category of service weapons and is intended primarily for arming employees of security and detective enterprises. It was developed on an initiative basis by the specialists of the Tinta implementation enterprise and the Izhevsk Technical University. When creating the revolver, the requirement of the Law of the Russian Federation "On Weapons" was taken into account that a short-barreled service weapon should have a muzzle energy of no more than 300 J, and the bullets of cartridges for this weapon cannot have cores made of solid materials. In an effort to provide a sufficiently large stopping effect of bullets, the developers of the revolver based it on a scheme with a smooth barrel and large-caliber cartridges.
As a result, DOG-1 is a revolving complex consisting of a 12.5 mm smooth-bore revolver and special cartridges for it.
The revolver is assembled on a solid steel frame and equipped with a self-cocking firing mechanism with an open hammer. Shooting can be carried out both self-cocking and with manual cocking of the hammer.
The barrel length is 90 mm. In the barrel bore at the muzzle there are projections that provide identification of the bullet fired from the barrel. This greatly facilitates the conduct of various forensic examinations.
The drum of the revolver holds 5 rounds. The revolver is reloaded according to the simplest scheme - by replacing the drums. This scheme assumes the presence of one or two additional drums, which can be equipped with cartridges of various types.
Replacing the loaded drum takes less than 5 seconds, which allows for almost continuous shooting with a "burst" of 10-15 shots.
The cartridges for the revolver are developed on the basis of a 12.5 × 35 mm rifle cartridge, in the sleeve of which the KV-26 capsule is inserted. The following options for cartridges are known:
• main cartridge with a round lead bullet weighing 12 g;
• additional cartridge (stopping action) with a plastic bullet;
• lighting cartridge;
• signal cartridge for supplying light signals;
• blank cartridge for giving sound signals.
The lethal effect of a lead bullet remains at a distance of up to 20 m, however, due to a large caliber, a bullet hitting parts of the body (arm, leg) that are not absolutely vital for the body will necessarily disable the attacker. This is due to the fact that the bullet causes such a shock sensation that not only does not allow the attacker to continue aggressive actions, but also does not allow him to leave the scene of the crime.
Shooting from a revolver is carried out using unregulated sights, including a front sight and a rear sight.
The first batches of revolvers have handles with wooden overlays. Subsequently, the handle was given a more comfortable Combat style with plastic grips.
Revolver MR-411 "Latina"
MP-411 "Latina" is intended for use as a service weapon by employees of security and detective services. Operative police officers and special forces personnel can use this compact revolver as a backup weapon of concealed carry. Due to the presence of adjustable sights, the revolver is suitable for sports shooting.
Serial production of MR-411 "Latina" is carried out by the Izhevsk Mechanical Plant.
The revolver is designed according to the layout with a "breaking" frame. This scheme was also used in the Smith-Wesson revolvers, which were in service with the Russian army at the end of the 19th century. A feature of the scheme is that when reloading, it is not the drum that is thrown back, but the block that includes the barrel and the drum. At the same time, a special extractor automatically removes all spent cartridges at once, thus providing a significant increase in the practical rate of fire.
MP-411 "Latina" refers to double-action revolvers. Due to the presence of a self-cocking firing mechanism with an open hammer, firing from it can be carried out both self-cocking and with manual pre-cocking of the hammer.
A feature of the design of the revolver is the use of a light alloy for the manufacture of the frame. At the same time, the high-stress parts of the locking and firing mechanism are made of high-quality steel. Anti-corrosion coating is applied on the surface of the parts.
The trigger guard is relatively small, it is shaped to exclude the possibility of snagging on items of clothing. The handle is also small in size, which makes the weapon compact. For a more reliable holding of the revolver when firing, a notch is made on the plastic pads of the handle.
The revolver is equipped with an automatic safety device, which reliably excludes both accidental shots and shots when the revolver falls on the concrete floor.
The ammunition used is the worldwide 22LR cartridges (5.6 mm rimfire). The drum of the revolver holds 8 of these cartridges. The spent cartridges are removed automatically when the revolver frame is “broken”.
Sights are adjustable. They include a front sight and a rear sight adjustable in two planes.
Revolver AEK-906 "Rhino"
The revolver was developed in the late 1990s. by the designers of the Kovrov Mechanical Plant for use as a standard weapon of the militia units and internal troops of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia.
The design of the revolver is based on a layout diagram with the location of the barrel and the drum retainer in the lower part of the frame, and the drum axis above the barrel. This made it possible to bring the center of gravity of the revolver as close as possible to the axis of the barrel bore, thus reducing the recoil shoulder and lowering the firing line relative to the shooter's hand. This contributed to an increase in firing accuracy and a quick restoration of the position of the revolver for aiming and making the next shot.
The revolver is equipped with a double-action firing mechanism with an open hammer. Shooting can be carried out both self-cocking and with manual cocking of the hammer. Effort of descent when firing self-cocking does not exceed 3.0-3.5 kgf.
The frame, as well as other metal parts, are made of high quality gun steel and blued.
The handle has a traditional shape for revolvers. The pads are made of high-strength plastic; to increase the reliability of holding the weapon when firing, a notch is made on them.
The trigger guard has a protrusion that makes it more convenient to shoot with two hands.
Protection against accidental shots is provided by a non-automatic fuse, the flag of which is located on the left side of the frame above the handle.
The revolver is designed for firing pistol cartridges 9 × 18 mm PM. It is possible to use more powerful cartridges 9 × 18 mm PMM and 9 × 19 mm Parabellum.
The drum holds 6 rounds. For reloading, it leans to the left. Loading is carried out using a flat metal spring clip.
After loading, the drum is fixed with a latch located on the left side of the frame.
Shooting is carried out using unregulated sights - front sight and rear sight. The aimed firing range is 50 m. It is possible to increase the firing accuracy by installing a laser designator under the barrel.
Revolver OTs-01 "Cobalt"
The revolver was developed on the basis of a tactical and technical assignment issued by the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia in 1991 (the topic "Cobalt"). It is intended for use as a standard weapon of militia units and internal troops. The revolver is branded TBK-0212 and OTs-01, the version adopted by the Ministry of Internal Affairs has the designation RSA (Stechkin-Avraamov revolver). In 1994, a decision was made to organize the serial production of the revolver at the Zlatoust Machine-Building Plant and the Ural Mechanical Plant.
The revolver is made according to the classic layout with a medium-sized solid steel frame. The self-cocking firing mechanism of the revolver allows for self-cocking and pre-cocking of the hammer. This mechanism is equipped with a highly reliable cylindrical mainspring, mounted in the handle.
An interesting feature of the design of the revolver is that in the firing position the drum is fixed with a latch located behind the drum, not in the lower part of the frame, as is customary, but in the upper one. This solution increases the accuracy and rigidity of the coupling of the drum chamber, from which the shot is fired, with the barrel bore.
The barrel length is 75 mm. In the trunks of the prototypes, the cutting was polygonal, in the trunks of the serial samples, it was rectangular.
The metal parts of the revolver are made of high quality gun steel. They are chemically oxidized or hot varnished to protect against corrosion.
The relatively small handle provides a fairly reliable hold of the weapon during firing. It can be made with wooden pads and rounded edges for shooters with a narrow wrist or with wide plastic pads for shooters with a large wrist.
To prevent accidental shots, a non-automatic safety device is provided, the flag of which is located on the frame above the handle.
The standard version of the revolver is designed for firing 9 × 18 mm PM cartridges. The capacity of the drum is 6 rounds; for reloading, the drum leans to the left. The spent cartridges are removed by a central extractor, the rod of which, in the firing position, is in the pencil case under the barrel.
The acceleration of loading the drum with cartridges is ensured by the use of plate clips with cartridges.
Sights include a rear sight and a front sight mounted on the barrel on a low base. The aiming range is 50 m, while ensuring good accuracy of the battle.
In addition to the standard revolver with a 75 mm barrel chambered for 9 × 18 mm PM, a variant was developed for the 9 × 19 mm Parabellum cartridge, as well as a revolver with a shortened barrel for concealed carry (chambered for 9 × 18 mm PM).
There is also information about the release in 1996 of the TKB-0216 C (OTs-01 C) variant chambered for 9 × 17 mm Kurz. It is the service weapon of employees of security and detective companies.
A significant margin of safety inherent in the design of the revolver allows, if necessary, to re-barrel it under a promising cartridge, in terms of power and size commensurate with the widely used cartridge. 357 Magnum.
Revolver OC-20 "Gnome"
OTs-20 "Gnome" is one of the designs designed for arming the militia units and internal troops of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation. Its use is also possible by employees of security and detective companies.
The peculiarity of the revolver is that it was created as part of the revolver-cartridge complex and is designed for firing special cartridges collected in a shortened 32-caliber hunting sleeve.
The design of the revolver is based on the traditional layout with a solid steel frame. The self-loading firing mechanism is assembled in the form of a single block with a trigger and a mainspring. Due to this, incomplete disassembly of the revolver for cleaning and inspection is carried out in a matter of seconds and only requires a cleaning rod.
The revolver has a rather unusual solution to the problem of the alignment of the drum chambers with the barrel. In addition to the traditional stopper, the drum is equipped with five grooves, one of which, a moment before the shot, includes a special protrusion of the trigger. If this condition is not met, the firing of the shot is excluded.
Additional protection against accidental shots is provided by the fact that the hammer interacts with the spring-loaded striker only when the trigger is purposefully pulled.
The barrel length is 100 mm. The bore is smooth.
To increase the life of the barrel, its bore is chrome-plated. The drum chambers are also chrome-plated.
The comfortable grip is equipped with plastic pads, and it is also possible to supply the revolver with grip pads made of solid wood.
Shooting from a revolver is carried out with special cartridges:
• SC 110 - a cartridge with a steel bullet weighing 11 g and a muzzle energy of 900 J. This bullet has an initial velocity of 400 m / s, at a distance of 50 m it penetrates a sheet of steel 3 mm thick. At a distance of up to 25 m, a bullet can penetrate a standard armor piece 4.5 mm thick. This means that no body armor (up to class 4 inclusive) provides protection against SC-110;
• SC 110–02 - a shot cartridge containing 16 lead pellets with a diameter of 4.5 mm, with a total weight of 10 g. The cartridge is used when firing in difficult conditions, for example, in the dark, as well as for hitting group targets;
• SC 110–04 - a cartridge with a lead bullet weighing 12 g and an initial speed of 350 m / s. In terms of stopping action, this bullet is superior to most modern pistol and revolver bullets.
Shooting accuracy is provided by sighting devices, including a front sight and a rear sight. To facilitate aiming at night, the sights can be equipped with bright white plastic inserts.
Provides for the use of a laser designator, mounted on a frame under the barrel, which turns on when the hand grips the handle of the revolver and allows you to make 500 aimed shots without recharging.
Revolver RSL-1 "Boar"
In 1996, the complex of tests of the RSL-1 "Kaban" revolver, developed by the designers of the OJSC "Kirovsky plant" Mayak ", was completed. Based on the test results, the revolver was recommended for serial production. It is designed to arm employees of security and detective organizations, militarized guard shooters. It is also possible to use it by operational police officers.
The revolver is designed according to the classic layout with a solid steel frame. The elegant exterior design is similar to the compact revolvers of the American firm Smith and Wesson.
The revolver has a self-cocking firing mechanism that ensures constant readiness for firing. It is possible to fire with manual pre-cocking of the open hammer. In this case, greater shooting accuracy is achieved. The force on the trigger with self-cocking is 6, 6 kgf, with manual cocking of the hammer - 3, 1 kgf.
The relatively small handle provides a fairly reliable hold of the weapon when firing. This is facilitated by the notch applied to the grip covers.
Safe handling of the revolver is ensured due to the fact that it has a spring-loaded firing pin and an automatic uncoupler of the kinematic connection "trigger-firing pin" when the trigger is pressed. Due to this, a shot can only be fired when the trigger is fully pressed.
Shooting is carried out with pistol cartridges 9 × 17 K with a sleeve without a rim. In this regard, as well as to increase the practical rate of fire by reducing the reload time in RSL-1, a metal clip for 5 rounds is used. It allows you to simultaneously (in one step) loading the revolver and removing all spent cartridges with an open drum.
The use of non-adjustable sighting devices is provided. Bright white markings applied to the front sight and rear sight make aiming easier and faster when shooting offhand and in low light conditions.
The revolver is produced in two versions, differing in the color of the coating of metal parts and the material of the handle plates.
In the RSL-1.00.000 version, the metal parts have a matte black finish, and the overlays are made of plastic.
The RSL-1.00.000–01 version features shiny chrome-plated metal parts and hardwood overlays.
Both versions can also be produced in a souvenir version. In this case, the grip covers are made of valuable hardwood, and the revolvers themselves are placed in wooden boxes decorated with artistic decoration.
Tula KBP enterprise in the early 1990s. developed a compact revolver P-92, suitable for concealed carry and use in situations of attack and defense. The revolver is intended primarily for arming operational officers of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation.
The first batches of P-92 revolvers were manufactured in Tula; for the organization of mass production, the design documentation was transferred to the Kovrov Mechanical Plant.
The revolver is created on the basis of the original layout scheme, in which the drum and barrel assembly are displaced towards the handle. This made it possible, while maintaining a sufficiently long barrel length (83 mm), to significantly reduce the length of the revolver as a whole. To ensure concealed carrying, the revolver is given a "licked" shape, and the self-cocking firing mechanism is made with a half-closed trigger that does not cling to clothing.
A feature of the trigger mechanism is that the trigger does not turn when pressed, but moves backward, interacting with the trigger through the lever. As conceived by the designers, this should improve the accuracy of shooting. The hammer shank, which often causes a lot of troubles with the quick extraction of revolvers of the usual scheme with an open hammer, is almost completely hidden by the frame and the tide of the handle. Nevertheless, if necessary, it allows you to cock the hammer manually.
It should be noted that the relatively high location of the barrel bore above the point where the handle rests on the hand of the shooter increases the torque of the recoil force, which negatively affects the accuracy of fire. The force on the trigger when firing self-cocking is large enough (5.5 kgf), which reduces the accuracy of the fire.
The frame of the revolver is made of light alloy by injection molding. The steel rifled barrel is pressed into the frame.
The handle is small. Its plastic pads are provided with a notch that increases the reliability of holding the revolver when firing.
The revolver is designed for 9 × 18 mm PM cartridges. The drum holds 5 rounds. For reloading, it leans to the left. Thanks to the loading of all the drum chambers with the help of a plastic clip and the simultaneous removal of spent cartridges, the time for preparing the weapon for firing is significantly reduced. The designers have provided for the possibility of firing without clips, but in this case, the removal of spent cartridges takes more time, since they have to be removed from the drum chambers one by one.
Sights are not adjustable. They include a front sight and a rear sight located at the top of the frame. The aiming line is not long, so aimed shooting is possible at a range of 15–25 m.
The following modifications have been developed on the basis of the R-92 revolver:
• R-92 KS - service revolver chambered for 9 × 17 K. Designed to arm employees of security and detective organizations;
• GR-92 - gas revolver chambered for PG-92, filled with tear gas.
The main technical solutions incorporated in the R-92 were used to create the 12.3 mm U-94 revolver, which is actually an enlarged copy of it.
In the early 1990s. The Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia initiated development work on the "Strike" theme, which provided for the creation of a powerful revolver for a wide range of tasks solved by law enforcement agencies. One of the revolvers created within the framework of this theme was the "Impact" of the TsNIITOCHMASH enterprise.
The peculiarity of the design of the revolver is that it is fired with powerful cartridges of 12, 3 mm caliber, assembled in a metal sleeve of an ordinary 32-caliber hunting cartridge. Cartridges of three main types have been developed for the revolver:
live cartridge with a bullet with a steel core (at a distance of 25 m penetrates a sheet of steel 5 mm thick);
a live cartridge with a lead-core bullet (at a distance of 25 m, the bullet has an energy of 49 J);
non-lethal cartridge with a rubber bullet or three plastic balls, as well as shot, noise and pyro-liquid cartridges.
For firing these cartridges, the bore of the revolver is made smooth. The barrel length is relatively short, it is rigidly fixed on a steel whole frame of medium size.
The barrel and other metal parts of the revolver that are exposed to high loads during firing are made of high quality weapon steel. They are blued to protect against corrosion.
The drum holds 5 rounds. For a quick transition from using one type of cartridge to another, the revolver can be reloaded by simply replacing pre-loaded drums. This not only makes it possible to adapt the revolver to a rapidly changing operational environment, but also significantly increases the practical rate of fire.
To remove spent cartridges, there is a spring-loaded sprocket inside the drum, which, when pressed on the extractor, pulls out all the cartridges at once.
The revolver is equipped with a comfortable handle of a classic shape. The size of the handle is quite consistent with the power of the cartridges used, however, for better stability of the weapon, it is recommended to shoot from two hands. For the convenience of such shooting, the trigger guard is equipped with a front protrusion.
Protection against accidental shots is provided by a non-automatic safety device.
In the on position, it locks the trigger and the drum.
The revolver has non-adjustable sights, including a rear sight and a front sight.
Aimed firing can be carried out at a range of up to 50 m, but when using a non-lethal cartridge, the aimed firing range is reduced to 15 m.