November 18, 2012 40 years have passed since the first landing on the deck of the Moscow helicopter carrier, a vertical take-off and landing aircraft Yak-36M … It is this date, November 18, 1972, that is considered to be the birthday of the Russian carrier-based jet aircraft.
In 1974, the serial production of the aircraft began. On August 11, 1977, the aircraft was adopted by the Navy under the designation Yak-38 … For vertical take-off and landing, a lift-sustainer and two lift engines were used. The lift-sustainer engine is located in the middle part of the fuselage, has side single-mode air intakes with a separation of the boundary layer and an unregulated nozzle with 2 rotary nozzles. The lift motors are located one after the other at the front of the fuselage. Their air intakes and jet nozzles are closed by controllable flaps. To prevent hot gases from entering the air intakes, reflective ribs are installed at the top and bottom of the fuselage. The fuel supply is located in 2 internal caisson tanks.
On the Yak-38M, there is a suspension under the wing of 2 PTBs of 500 liters each. The cockpit is equipped with the SK-3M forced ejection system (it has no analogues in the world) with the K-36VM seat (on the first KYA-1M aircraft). Flight and navigation equipment ensures the performance of combat missions day and night in simple and difficult weather conditions. The armament includes: R-60 (R-60M) and Kh-23 (Kh-23MR) missiles, UB-32A, UB-32M, UB-16-57UMP blocks with S-5 missiles, B-8M1 missiles S-8, unguided missiles S-24B, free-falling aerial bombs up to 250 kg caliber, one-time cluster bombs, incendiary tanks, UPK-23-250 cannon containers.
In total, in 1974-1989, 231 Yak-38 aircraft of various modifications were manufactured. The aircraft was based on Project 1143 aircraft-carrying cruisers (Kiev, Minsk, Novorossiysk, Baku). If necessary, dry cargo ships and container ships with a specially equipped platform 20x20 m on the deck could be used for basing. In the spring of 1980, 4 Yak-38s took part in the hostilities in Afghanistan as part of Operation Rhombus. In general, the plane was unsuccessful, the interest of sailors in the Yak-38 was short-lived. The aircraft had a weak thrust-to-weight ratio, in southern latitudes at high temperatures and humidity, it often had problems with takeoff and had an extremely short range. The Yak-38 quickly became the leader of the Soviet naval aviation in terms of the number of accidents, although there were not many victims, thanks to the automatic ejection system.
The century of this aircraft, in contrast to its western counterpart, "VTOL Harrier", was short. With the collapse of the USSR in 1991, the Yak-38 was withdrawn to the reserve, and the next year it was removed from service. The planes that had not reached their end of life were transferred to the storage base and later "disposed of". Following this, three fairly new ships, project 1143, were sold abroad at the price of scrap metal.
"Admiral Gorshkov" (formerly "Baku") was sold to India and is being modernized in Severodvinsk
Taking into account the shortcomings of the Yak-38, in the mid-70s, the design of a new vertical take-off and landing aircraft began. After adjusting the requirements of the military, the aircraft, which received the name Yak-41M during design was optimized for vertical takeoff and supersonic flight. It is capable of full-load vertical takeoff. For this purpose, afterburner operation of the engines is provided. The combined triplex digital fly-by-wire control system of the aircraft and the power plant connects the deflection of the all-turning stabilizer with the mode of operation of the lift and lift-sustainer engines. The system controls the deflection of the nozzles of all three motors. The lift motors can operate up to an altitude of 2500 meters at a flight speed of no more than 550 km / h.
Fuel capacity using outboard fuel tanks can be increased by 1750kg. It is possible to install a suspended conformal fuel tank. The information display system includes a multifunctional electronic indicator (display) and an indicator on the windshield of the cab.
The sighting complex has an onboard computer around which the following are grouped: an onboard radar station M002 (S-41), a fire control system, a helmet-mounted target designation system and a laser-television guidance system. The flight and navigation complex allows determining the coordinates of the aircraft's location in flight both from ground (shipborne) radio systems and from satellite navigation systems. The complex has remote and trajectory aircraft control systems, an autonomous navigation computer, etc.
Built-in small arms - a highly effective 30 mm GSh-301 cannon with an ammunition load of 120 rounds of various types, ensuring the defeat of air and ground (surface) lightly armored targets.
The maximum combat load of the Yak-41M is 260 kg and is placed on an external sling on four pylons under the wing.
Weapon options are formed depending on the nature of the targets being hit and are divided into three main groups: "air-to-air" (UR P-27R R-27T, R-77, R-73), "air-to-sea" (UR Kh-31A) and "air-to-surface" (UR Kh-25MP, Kh-31P. Kh-35). Unguided weapons as rocket (S-8 and S-13 shells in blocks, S-24) and bomb (FAB, small cargo containers - KM GU). In 1985, the first prototype of the Yak-41M aircraft was built.
The first flight on the Yak-41M during takeoff and landing "like an airplane" was performed by test pilot A. A. Sinitsyn on March 9, 1987. However, it was not possible to submit the aircraft for state tests within the time period stipulated by the decree (in 1988). When adjusting the timing of the tests, the designation of the aircraft was changed, which became known as Yak-141.
The active phase of testing the Yak-41M aircraft in ship conditions began in September 1991. During the tests, during the landing, one copy of the aircraft was lost. Fortunately, the pilot ejected successfully. The Yak-141 aircraft, after the termination of tests, was first publicly presented on September 6-13, 1992 at the Farnborough air show, and later was repeatedly demonstrated at other air shows.
The Yak-141 has the following advantages over the Yak-38:
• take-off without taxiing onto the runway directly from the shelter along the exit taxiway with the provision of a massive entry into battle of the Yak-141 unit;
• aircraft operation from damaged airfields;
• dispersal of aircraft on a large number of small-sized sites with the provision of increased survivability and basing secrecy;
• 4 - 5 times reduction in the take-off time of a unit of Yak-141 aircraft from readiness position 1 in comparison with a unit of a conventional take-off;
• concentration of a group of fighter aircraft to intercept air targets in threatened directions, regardless of the presence of a developed airfield network there;
• conducting close maneuver combat, striking ground and surface targets;
• short response time to the call of ground forces due to the short flight time and the simultaneous take-off of a large number of aircraft from scattered sites located near the front line; basing both on aircraft-carrying ships of the Navy, and on ships of the navy that do not have a developed flight deck, as well as on limited take-off and landing sites and road sections.
Due to the collapse of the USSR, this aircraft, which was ahead of its time, was never put into mass production.
On the basis of project 1143 in the early 80s, the construction of an aircraft-carrying cruiser with horizontal take-off and landing aircraft began in the USSR. The fifth heavy aircraft-carrying cruiser of the USSR - "Riga" of project 11435, was laid down on the slipway of the Black Sea shipyard on September 1, 1982.
It differed from its predecessors for the first time in the possibility of taking off and landing on it of aircraft of the traditional scheme, modified versions of the ground Su-27, MiG-29 and Su-25. For this, he had a significantly enlarged flight deck and a springboard for taking off aircraft. Even before the end of assembly, after the death of Leonid Brezhnev, on November 22, 1982, the cruiser was renamed in his honor to Leonid Brezhnev. Launched on December 4, 1985, after which its completion afloat continued. On August 11, 1987 it was renamed "Tbilisi". On June 8, 1989, its mooring trials began, and on September 8, 1989, the crew was settled. On October 21, 1989, the unfinished and understaffed ship was put out to sea, where it carried out a cycle of flight design tests of aircraft intended for basing on board. On November 1, 1989, the first landings of the MiG-29K, Su-27K and Su-25UTG were made. The first takeoff from it was made by the MiG-29K on the same day and the Su-25UTG and Su-27K the next day, November 2, 1989. After completing the test cycle on November 23, 1989, he returned to the plant for completion. October 4, 1990 renamed once again (5th) and began to be called "Admiral of the Fleet of the Soviet Union Kuznetsov" … Commissioned on January 20, 1991.
According to the project, the ship was supposed to be based: 50 aircraft and helicopters 26 MiG-29K or Su-27K, 4 Ka-27RLD, 18 Ka-27 or Ka-29, 2 Ka-27PS. In fact: 10 Su-33, 2 Su-25UTG.
Fighter Su-33, according to the decree of April 18, 1984, was to be developed on the basis of the fourth generation Su-27 heavy fighter, which by that time had already passed tests and was put into mass production. The Su-33 was supposed to retain all the advantages and design and layout solutions of the base Su-27 fighter.
Serial production of the Su-33 began in 1989 at KnAAPO. Due to the collapse of the USSR and the subsequent economic crisis, the serial production of the Su-33 carrier-based fighters, one might say, did not take place - a total of 26 serial fighters were built.
The Su-33 fighter was created according to the normal aerodynamic configuration with the use of the front horizontal tail and has an integral layout. The trapezoidal wing, which has developed nodules and smoothly mates with the fuselage, forms a single load-bearing body. By-pass turbojet engines with afterburners are located in spaced-apart nacelles, which reduces their mutual influence. The engine air intakes are located under the center section. The forward horizontal empennage is installed in the overflow of the wing and increases both the maneuverable characteristics of the aircraft and the lift of the airframe, which is very important for a carrier-based fighter. The power plant of the aircraft consists of two AL-31F bypass turbojet engines with afterburners. The armament of the aircraft is subdivided into small arms and cannon and rocket armament. The small arms and cannon armament is represented by a built-in automatic rapid-firing single-barreled 30 mm cannon of the GSh-301 type, installed in the influx of the right half of the wing, with an ammunition load of 150 rounds. The aircraft can carry up to 8 medium-range air-to-air missiles of the R-27 type with semi-active radar (R-27R) or thermal (R-27T) homing heads, as well as their modifications with an increased flight range (R-27ER, R-27ET) and up to 6 guided missiles of short-range maneuverable combat with thermal homing heads of the R-73 type. The typical armament of the aircraft consists of 8 R-27E missiles and 4 R-73 missiles.
Maximum speed: at altitude: 2300 km / h (2.17 M) at the ground: 1300 km / h (1.09 M)
Landing speed: 235-250 km / h
Flight range: near the ground: 1000 km at an altitude of 3000 km
Duration of patrolling at a distance of 250 km: 2 hours.
Service ceiling: 17,000 m
Wing loading: at normal takeoff weight; with
partial filling: 383 kg / m²
with full fuel: 441 kg / m² at maximum takeoff
mass: 486 kg / m²
Afterburner thrust-to-weight ratio:
at normal takeoff weight: with partial refueling: 0, 96; s
full charge: 0, 84
at maximum takeoff weight: 0, 76
Takeoff run: 105m. (with a springboard) The length of the run: 90 m (with an aerofinisher)
Maximum operating overload: 8.5 g
MiG-29K was developed for manning a mixed group of naval aviation. In the carrier-based aviation group, the 29 was assigned the role of a multifunctional machine (similar to the American F / A-18): both an attack aircraft and an air superiority aircraft at short distances, it was also supposed to use a fighter as a reconnaissance aircraft.
The development of the aircraft concept began in 1978, and the direct design of the aircraft began in 1984. It differed from the "land" MiG-29 in the set of equipment necessary for basing on the ship, reinforced chassis and folding wing.
The MiG-29K made its first takeoff and landing on the deck of an aircraft-carrying cruiser on November 1, 1989, under the control of Toktar Aubakirov. Due to economic difficulties, the MiG-29K project was closed, but it was proactively promoted by the design bureau for its own money. Now this machine is equipped similarly to the MiG-29M2 (MiG-35). Compared to the original version, the wing mechanization has been improved to improve takeoff and landing characteristics, the fuel supply has been increased, an air refueling system has been installed, the mass of weapons has been increased, the aircraft's visibility in the radar range has been reduced, the aircraft has a multifunctional multi-mode pulse-Doppler airborne radar station Zhuk -ME , RD-33MK engines, new EDSU with quadruple redundancy, avionics of MIL-STD-1553B standard with open architecture.
The MiG-29K can be based on aircraft-carrying ships capable of receiving aircraft weighing over 20 tons, equipped with a take-off springboard and landing aerial finisher, as well as at ground airfields. The aircraft are armed with RVV-AE and R-73E guided missiles for air combat; anti-ship missiles Kh-31A and Kh-35; anti-radar missiles Kh-31P and corrected aerial bombs KAB-500Kr for destruction of ground and surface targets.
Maximum speed: at altitude: 2300 km / h (M = 2, 17); near the ground: 1400 km / h (M = 1, 17)
Ferry range: at high altitude: without PTB: 2000 km; with 3 PTB: 3000 km
with 5 PTB and one refueling: 6500 km
Combat radius: Without PTB: 850 km. From 1 PTB: 1050 km. With 3 PTB: 1300 km
Service ceiling: 17500 m
Climb rate: 18000 m / min
Takeoff run: 110-195 m (with a springboard)
Path length: 90-150 m (with aero finisher)
Maximum operational overload: +8.5 g
Wing loading: at normal takeoff weight: 423 kg / m²
at maximum takeoff weight: 533 kg / m²
Thrust-to-weight ratio: at maximum takeoff weight: 0, 84.
at normal takeoff weight: 1, 06 s 3000l
fuel (2300kg) and 4xR-77.
Armament: Cannon: 30-mm aircraft cannon GSH-30-1, 150 rounds
Combat load: 4500 kg. Suspension points: 8.
Modern deck-based MiGs are multifunctional all-weather vehicles of the 4 ++ generation. Their task includes anti-aircraft and anti-ship defense of the formation of ships, strikes against enemy ground targets. A decision was made to replace the exhausted Su-33 with the MiG-29K modification 9-41. They will also be armed with the wing of the former "Admiral Gorshkov". Which underwent modernization and re-equipment in Severodvinsk for the Indian Navy, where it was named "Vikramaditya".
As a training, to save the resource of combat vehicles on the "Kuznetsov" used a pair Su-25UTG- on the basis of the combat training two-seat attack aircraft Su-25UB.
It differs from it in the absence of sighting equipment, weapons control system blocks, a cannon installation with a cannon, beam holders and pylons, engine armor screens, a radio station for communication with ground forces, blocks and elements of the defense system.
After the termination of the program of carrier-based AWACS Yak-44 and An-71, a helicopter was adopted to provide radar surveillance and reconnaissance. Ka-31.
The development of the Ka-31 helicopter by Kamov Design Bureau began in 1985. The glider and the power plant of the Ka-29 helicopter were taken as the basis. The first flight of the Ka-31 took place in 1987. The helicopter was adopted by the Russian Navy in 1995. Serial production has been established at the helicopter plant in Kumertau (KumAPP). It is planned that from 2013 the Ka-31 will begin to enter service with the Northern Fleet of the Russian Navy.
The main structural element is a radar with a rotating antenna 5.75 m long and an area of 6 m2. The antenna is installed under the fuselage and adjoins its lower part in the folded position. During operation, the antenna opens 90 ° downward, while the landing gear legs are pressed against the fuselage so as not to interfere with the rotation of the antenna. The time for a complete rotation of the antenna is 10 sec. The radar provides simultaneous detection and tracking of up to 20 targets. The detection range is: for aircraft 100-150 km, for surface ships 250-285 km. The duration of the patrol is 2.5 hours when flying at an altitude of 3500 m.
Ka-27 - ship multipurpose helicopter. On the basis of the basic multipurpose vehicle, two main modifications were developed for the Navy - the Ka-27 anti-submarine helicopter and the Ka-27PS search and rescue helicopter.
Ka-27 (NATO classification - "Helix-A") is designed to detect, track and destroy submarines sailing at a depth of 500 m at speeds up to 75 km / h in search areas remote from the home ship up to 200 km in waves sea up to 5 points day and night in simple and difficult weather conditions. The helicopter can provide the performance of tactical missions both individually and as part of a group
and in interaction with ships in all geographic latitudes.
Serial production began in 1977 at the helicopter plant in Kumertau. For various reasons, the tests and development of the helicopter lasted for 9 years, and the helicopter was adopted on April 14, 1981.
To destroy submarines, AT-1MV anti-submarine torpedoes, APR-23 missiles and aerial bombs weighing up to 250 kg can be used.
On the KD-2-323 cassette holder, installed on the starboard side of the fuselage, OMAB reference naval bombs, day or night, are suspended.
The Ka-27PS marine rescue helicopter is designed to rescue or assist the crews of ships and aircraft in distress, the PS modification is the most popular for a simple reason - the helicopter is mainly used as a vehicle on ships and coastal bases.
Currently, the Ka-27 continues to serve on the aircraft carrier "Admiral Kuznetsov". Destroyers are armed with one helicopter, two large anti-submarine ships (BOD project 1155), two each (missile cruisers of project 1144).
Ka-29, (according to NATO classification: Helix-B, - English Spiral-B) - ship transport and combat helicopter, further development of the Ka-27 helicopter.
The Ka-29 helicopter is produced in two main versions: transport and combat, and is intended for landing from ships of marine units, transporting cargo, military equipment in suspension, as well as fire support for the marines, destroying manpower, equipment and coastal fortifications of the enemy. It can be used for medical evacuation, transfer of personnel, cargo from floating bases and supply vessels to warships. The Ka-29 helicopters were based on Project 1174 landing ships. In the transport version, the helicopter is capable of taking on board 16 paratroopers with personal weapons, or 10 wounded, including four on a stretcher, or up to 2000 kg of cargo in the transport cabin, or up to 4000 kg of cargo on the outside. suspension. The helicopter can be equipped with a winch with a lifting capacity of up to 300 kg.
Armament: Movable machine gun mount 9A622 caliber 7, 62 mm with ammunition of 1800 rounds or 30 mm. cannon, 6 - ATGM "Shturm".
In the future, with the entry into service of the Mistral-class universal amphibious assault ships, it is planned to use domestically produced helicopters on them. Including drums Ka-52K.
The ship modification of the vehicle, called the Ka-52K, should be assembled, verified and tested by mid-2014. Just by that time, the first copies of the Mistrals will arrive at the Pacific Fleet. It is planned that each Mistral will be equipped with 8 Ka-52K helicopters and 8 Ka-29 combat vehicles.