BMP-2 is one of the most massive domestic infantry fighting vehicles. Designed to transport soldiers to the front line, increase their mobility, armament and security, including when using nuclear weapons. It was put into service in 1980 and was mass-produced until 1990. Currently, the Russian army has about 5,000 of these machines. Quite a lot of time has passed since the start of operation, so the question of modernizing this equipment was on the agenda. State Unitary Enterprise “KBP” presented to the military judgment its version of modernization, which was named BMP-2M “Berezhok”.
An analysis of trends in the development of modern weapons showed that almost all the main characteristics of the BMP-2, primarily a guided projectile, require significant improvements. The main importance is the need to defeat modern main battle tanks equipped with reactive armor. In addition, the firing range of a conventional BMP-2 at night is 800 meters, while most modern infantry fighting vehicles and tanks are equipped with thermal imagers capable of effectively recognizing targets at a distance of 2000-2500 meters. Reloading ATGM "Konkurs" in service with BMP-2 is associated with large losses of time and the likelihood of hitting one of the crew members with small arms fire or shrapnel when reloading the complex. In addition, a serious drawback of the armament complex is the impossibility of firing an ATGM on the move.
The most important task was the improvement of unguided weapons, which are more effective and economical when fighting in the close zone against enemy infantry. However, the elimination of this problem on the standard BMP-2 was very limited by the use of a manual fire control system.
The modernization of the machine, carried out by the State Unitary Enterprise "Instrument-Making Design Bureau", made it possible to increase its firepower in comparison with the base model by 3-4 times. For their work, KBP's team of authors received the national prize “Golden Idea”, and Russian developments abroad were not ignored. The vehicle was shown to the Indian Armed Forces and received high marks from Indian military experts. Well, the first export contract for the modernization of 300 BMP-2 to the level of BMP-2M "Berezhok" was signed with Algeria in 2005.
BMP-2M "Berezhok" has an automated all-day fire control system (FCS) with automatic tracking, which was unified with the previously developed complex "Bakhcha". The armament of the BMP consists of the Kornet anti-tank guided missiles with an effective firing range of 5 km. with the possibility of using in the daytime and at night against heavily armored targets, a 30-mm cannon for fighting lightly armored vehicles and enemy infantry, as well as an AG-17 automatic grenade launcher for working on areas - enemy manpower and trenches. This complex, equipped with a new MSA, allows the BMP to solve the entire range of tasks that are assigned to heavier combat vehicles (main tanks) at any time of the day.
In addition, a new high-power UTD-23 engine (370 l / s, specific power 28 hp / t) is installed on the machine against the standard UTD-20 engine (300 l / s, specific power 23 hp / t).). Installing a more powerful engine increases the average speed on dirt roads by 30% to 44 km / h, and also increases the specific traction force by 64% at maximum speed. At the same time, it was possible to achieve a 5% reduction in fuel consumption when driving on unpaved roads.
The standard command sight BPK-2-42 was replaced with a new combined one (day / night), which was maximally unified with the gunner's sight. This modernization made it possible to increase the firing accuracy of all types of ammunition, including on the move, and to conduct combat operations of the vehicle around the clock. The new sight is equipped with a laser rangefinder, which is also used as an ATGM guidance device. To increase the accuracy of shooting and improve the conditions of combat work, the weapons stabilizer blocks were replaced with more modern ones, and a digital ballistic computer with a set of sensors was installed (atmospheric parameters, type of projectiles, angle of inclination of the cannon trunnions, target angular velocity, etc.). The gun ammunition has been replenished with a new Trident armor-piercing sub-caliber projectile with higher penetration characteristics (effective firing range at targets of the BTR class - 2200 m).
ATGM "Kornet" equipped with a semi-automatic laser-beam guidance system has a fairly high armor penetration (up to 1200 mm), which allows it to hit many modern tanks, including those equipped with dynamic protection. The firing range at targets during the day is 5500 m, at night - 4500 m. The Kornet is installed on a multi-charge launcher that does not require reloading during a battle; there are two combat containers with 2 missiles each. The increase in combat effectiveness is achieved by increasing the maximum damage and increasing the combat rate of fire, and the use of the complex also reduces the risk of damage to the BMP crew. Provided and firing a salvo of two missiles.
As an additional means of enhancing firepower, the BMP-2M "Berezhok" includes a 30 mm AG-17 automatic grenade launcher. The installation, stabilized in the vertical plane, with an armored magazine for 300 grenades, is located in the rear of the tower. The use of a grenade launcher during a battle, including when firing on the move, allows you to effectively fight enemy manpower in folds of terrain, trenches, behind any obstacles at a distance of up to 1700 m.
In the course of further factory tests, the vehicle received a new panoramic sight of the commander, a slightly changed location of the AG-17 grenade launcher, and the Kornet anti-tank guided missile launchers were protected by armored housings, and it was in this form that the upgraded BMP received its name BMP-2M “Berezhok”.
After the modernization, the combat vehicle remained an effective vehicle, which was able to successfully perform other combat missions (anti-tank, anti-aircraft) at the level of specialized equipment. As a result, its combat effectiveness increased by 3, 2 times (the combat potential of the weapons systems used was taken into account as indicators of effectiveness). So when performing a standard combat mission (attacking a stronghold platoon point with a reinforced infantry fighting vehicle company) due to the increased effective firing range on the move with all types of weapons, including from a grenade launcher, losses in battle are reduced by 2, 4-2, 6 times, and the cost of the execution of a combat mission is reduced by 1, 5-1, 7 times.