Modern means of mining in the service of the armies of the world

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Modern means of mining in the service of the armies of the world
Modern means of mining in the service of the armies of the world

It is known that without a good knowledge of military engineering, it is impossible to achieve success in combined arms combat. An important component of military engineering is demolition work, which includes various systems and means of mining, as well as mine explosive barriers.

According to experts, mine weapons can be used not only in defense, but also in the offensive, since modern means of mining involve their high-speed installation, which makes it possible to arrange minefields directly during the battle.


Portable set of mining "Veter-M", PKM-1 known since the times of the Soviet army. It is the simplest combined-arms weapon with which you can remotely install anti-tank and anti-personnel mines. The peculiarity of the kit is that it can be installed not only in advance, but also directly during the battle, which significantly increases the tactical defense capabilities of the troops.

The kit includes a primitive launcher for the PM-4 blasting machine, two cable reels of 50 meters each and a carrying bag. The whole set weighs about 2.5 kilograms. The machine is made in the form of a small metal sheet, to which a pallet with an electrical contact is attached at an angle of 45 degrees. The machine holds cassettes with antipersonnel or anti-tank mines, and then is used to fire these cassettes. The machine works extremely simply - when cassettes are connected to the machine, contacts are closed between them. Then the blasting machine gives an electrical impulse, the expelling powder charge in the cassette is ignited. This makes it possible to throw a mine about 30-35 meters. Regardless of the type of mines, the dimensions of the cassette remain the same, only the marking on them changes. So, there are KSF-1 cassettes with 72 PFM-1 antipersonnel mines, KSF-1S-0.5 cassettes with 36 PFM-1 antipersonnel mines and the same number of PFM-1S, KSF-1S cassettes with 64 PFM-1S antipersonnel mines, KSO cassettes -1 with 8 POM-1 anti-personnel mines, KPOM-2 cassettes with 4 POM-2 anti-personnel mines, as well as KPTM-3 cassettes with 1 PTM-3 anti-tank mine and KPTM-1 cassettes with 3 PTM-1 anti-tank mines.

Mines thrown from cassettes are scattered and form an ellipse of dispersion. Its dimensions are about 8-10 meters wide and 18-20 meters long. The probability of destruction, depending on the type of mine, ranges from 0.5 to 7 meters. Anti-tank mines are thrown about 100 meters.

It is possible to install single and multi-lane minefields.

This remote mining system is valuable for its simplicity, the ability to mine without leaving the trench, setting minefields suddenly for a possible enemy and detonating at the right time.

Modern means of mining in the service of the armies of the world
Modern means of mining in the service of the armies of the world

Another mine device that came from Soviet times is universal mine layer UMP … This is one of the remote mining systems designed to install anti-personnel, anti-tank and mixed minefields. In this case, mines can only be placed on the surface of the ground.

The minelayer is installed on the chassis of the Zil-131V onboard vehicle. Cassette units in the amount of 6 units are installed in the body on the turning device, and the ejection control system is in the cab.


The cassette units are independent of each other and can be rotated 360 degrees at different tilt angles.

Depending on the mining scheme, the rotation of the cassettes and the angle of their inclination are selected. All this is done manually before mining begins.

Up to 30 cassettes can be installed in each unit. And the complete set of the minelayer is 80 cassettes. Based on the foregoing, the minelayer can be simultaneously loaded with 180 PTM-3 anti-tank mines, 540 PTM-1 anti-tank mines, about 12 thousand PFM-1 anti-personnel mines, 1440 POM-1 anti-personnel mines and 720 POM-2 anti-personnel mines.

Mixed charging of cassette units can also be used. Then, in one run, the minelayer can carry anti-personnel and anti-tank mines or mines of the same type, but of different options. You can install the field in several runs, as well as replenish the ammunition at any time you need it.

In the process of mining, the minelayer can reach speeds of 5 to 40 kilometers per hour. Recharging by 2 people can be done in about 1, 5-2, 5 hours, and a sapper squad of 6 people - in 1 hour.

This minelayer outwardly does not differ in any way from the usual ZIL, so the enemy will not be able to identify him. The crew of the car will include two people - a driver and an operator.


A more modern means of mining is helicopter mining system VSM-1 … It is used to install anti-tank, anti-personnel and anti-amphibious minefields using Mi-8MT and Mi-8T helicopters. Most often, this system is used in order to quickly establish minefields in the places of the enemy's breakthrough, as well as in the zones of his advance deep into the protected territory. VSM-1 is produced by the Kazan Helicopter Production Association, and the system has been developed at the State Scientific Research Engineering Institute of the city of Balashikha.

The set of the system, in addition to the mining control panel, contains containers for mines in the amount of 4 units, a trolley for transportation, a panel and a container lifting system. Each container provides space for 29 KSO-1 cassettes.

The device of a minefield is carried out during flight over the terrain, which must be mined.

This system is most effective for mining mountainous areas. It was used in Afghanistan as a preventive measure against the mujahideen. The speed of spreading mines is about 8, 5 thousand mines per minute on an area of about 25 meters wide and 2 kilometers long.


Another effective mine remedy is universal container for small-sized cargoes KMGU, which is designed for transportation and dropping of front-line container blocks with fragmentation, high-explosive, cumulative and incendiary ammunition. The cassettes, after dropping, open, thus ensuring the movement of ammunition along the trajectory of hitting targets. Externally, the container looks like an aluminum power case with a streamlined shape and two compartments for placing cassette blocks. In the lower part of the body there are flaps that work from a pneumatic drive. It, in turn, is powered by a compressed air cylinder. The carriers of the container are the Mi-28N helicopter and the Su-17, Su-27, Su-24, MiG-29 and MiG-27 aircraft.


Means of remote mining for RZSO "Smerch" with a 9M55K4 rocket - This is a mining device designed for the construction of minefields using anti-tank mines PTM-3. The mines are placed in cluster units of five mines on each of the five tiers.

The head of the projectile is separated, and the mines are pushed out with the help of a squib. At the same time, they are transferred to combat readiness, and after 90-100 seconds the mines touch the surface of the ground. The scattering ellipse depends on the flight path and range and is approximately 2 by 2 kilometers.

In order to obtain such a minefield, 12 charges are needed, that is, one full salvo of "Tornado". The shells are scattered about 150 meters as a result of constant adjustments to their movement with the help of gas-dynamic rudders, as well as rotation around their axis.


The mines are on alert for a day, after which they self-destruct. If the mines are in disrepair or are not on alert due to an incorrect position, they also self-destruct within a day. And if they are in close proximity to vehicles or tanks on metal structures, then the explosion occurs instantly.

The safest distance for people after the start of self-destruction of mines is about 300 meters from the extreme mine. Also, mines of the PTM-3 type can be destroyed using EMT trawls.

The 9M55K4 rocket is used in the Smerch 9K58 multiple launch rocket system, which was adopted by Soviet troops in 1987. Currently, other types of projectiles are used for this installation.

The projectile itself is modular and differs only in warheads: high-explosive fragmentation, cumulative fragmentation, volumetric detonating, incendiary, and also with the use of homing anti-tank warheads.

The Smerch system is capable of speeds up to 60 kilometers per hour. The launcher includes 12 tube guides. A full salvo is carried out in 20 seconds, the range of destruction is from 20 to 70 kilometers. The installation is recharged by the 9T234-2 transport-charging machine in 10-15 minutes.

The complete set of the Smerch installation includes a 9A52-2 launcher, a 9T234-2 transport and loading vehicle and a KAMAZ-4310 vehicle with a Vivarium fire control system, which is used for six installations.

Experts are confident that modern means of mining have become more effective due to the use of electronic fuses and the possibility of programming mines for self-destruction after a certain time, an increase in mechanical strength due to the use of durable materials that make it possible to drop them from a great height without damage, an increase in the number of remote mining systems used not only military engineers, but also other branches of the military.

NATO remote mining systems

The Alliance military commanders, which for a long time viewed mines as a passive means of introducing hostilities, re-evaluated their increased potential. Every day the term "land mine warfare" is gaining more and more popularity.

The minelayers, which are in service with NATO forces, are intended for the device of anti-tank mines. They are divided into two groups: self-propelled and trailed. Most of them are trailed minelayers. The distance between the mines can be adjusted so that the density of the minefield can be increased or decreased. Most of the mines are anti-tank mines that hit the armor target over the entire area. Anti-track mines are also used to make it difficult for the enemy to overcome an established minefield.

The FFV 5821 minelayer is located in the MiWS ground-based mining system. This is a tow hitch, for which a standard car with 720 mines is used. At a speed of 7 kilometers per hour, the minelayer can set up to 20 minutes per minute. The device was developed by a Swedish company. Its deliveries began in 1989 to Germany, and later to the Netherlands.

The trailed minelayer used by the British forces is a standard device used by the engineering forces to install the L9A1 anti-track anti-tank mines. Currently, this type of mines is equipped with a new fuse, which is triggered under the entire target area. For its towing, the FV 432 "Trougen" tracked armored personnel carrier with 144 mines is used. For the installation of mines on the surface of the ground, FV 602 "Stolvet" is also used, which can carry up to 500 mines.

Spanish trailed minelayer ST-AT / V is used to install anti-tank, anti-bottom and anti-track mines. An armored personnel carrier with 200 mines is used for towing. The minelayer operates at a speed of 4 kilometers per hour.

The French F1 minelayer has a wheelbase. Its main feature is that when installing mines, it opens an individual hole for each of them, while not damaging the plant layer. The hydromechanical organ lifts the sod, and after the mine is installed, lowers it back and levels the surface with the help of a roller. The minelayer is designed to install mines of the same size, for example, such as anti-tracked ASRM.

In the cargo compartment of the installation there are cassettes of 112 mines each in the amount of 4 units. When each mine is placed, the machine stops, and all actions are automated. The mining speed is about 400 minutes per hour.

Remote mining systems are new means that make it possible to install minefields in the shortest possible time at a distance from several meters to hundreds of kilometers. Mines of various types descend into the structure of the systems - anti-tank, anti-personnel, anti-vehicle, means for their installation and the carrier itself, which can be used as ground vehicles, artillery shells or missiles, as well as aircraft and helicopters.

Ground-based mining systems are machines that, in motion, are capable of shooting or throwing mines at a distance of 30-100 meters, thus forming a mine strip of several tens of meters. Mines that have fallen to the surface are brought into a combat position and are triggered either in the process of impacting the target, or in an attempt to move them, or in the process of self-destruction. Systems of this type include American mining systems GEMSS, Vulcan, German MiWS, Italian Istriche, British Ranger.

Artillery systems are mines that use standard artillery pieces to fire cluster-type charges containing mines. After falling to the surface, they are brought into a firing position and are triggered in the process of exposure to the armored target or upon expiration of the validity period. These include the American RAAMS and ADAM systems.

Missile mining systems use standard MLRS for the device of minefields. Despite the fact that many states are engaged in such developments, they are in service only in Germany. They use the Lars-2 systems - this is a 36-barreled launcher. The cluster warhead is deployed at a predetermined point, and the mines are lowered by parachute under the action of an air stream. After landing, the parachute is detached and the mine is put on alert.

According to NATO experts, it is advisable to use helicopter systems to set up obstacles on the routes of the enemy pursuing retreating troops, to cover the flanks, as well as to strengthen the already installed obstacles. The disadvantage of such systems is that helicopters operate at extremely low altitudes, which significantly increases their vulnerability. Most often, two main types of such systems are used - universal ones that are mounted on board vehicles, as well as those installations that are transported on the external sling of a helicopter. Among the helicopter systems, one can note the American Vulcan system, the Italian DATS, SY-AT, which is used in Spain and Portugal.

Along with equipping NATO troops with these means of mining, it is also planned to develop new types of such weapons, the effectiveness of which is tested during exercises.

Representatives of the military department identify several main directions in which the development of new minefield systems should develop. This is the development of anti-tank mines capable of hitting a target at a distance of up to 100 meters, the creation of anti-helicopter mines that can hit air targets at low altitudes, as well as sabotage mines for special forces units.

The solution to all these problems is planned in the next decade.

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