Tracked transporter-tractor, also known under the designation "Product 21", was created in the USSR in the late 1950s and was widely used in the Soviet Army and in the national economy. The start of serial production of the GT-T was the reason for the termination of the development in the Soviet Union of a number of wheeled all-terrain vehicles (for example, ZIL-E167). The creation of such a versatile machine with excellent cross-country characteristics and the ability to swim brought Soviet engineering to a new level. More than half a century later, the GT-T snow and swamp-going vehicles, various modifications and upgrades of this machine are still suitable for operation and are in demand on the Russian market. This technique is widely used in various fields of production, especially in the Far North.
The idea of creating a new floating tracked tractor-transporter in the USSR was addressed in the late 1950s. In 1958-1960, the car was developed by the designers of the Kharkov Tractor Plant. The model received the designation "product 21", its production was planned to be deployed at the recently built Rubtsovsk Machine-Building Plant (today a branch of the Scientific and Production Corporation "Uralvagonzavod"). The first two transporter hulls were built at the new enterprise already at the end of 1961. In March 1962, the main assembly line for their assembly was successfully put into operation, as well as the first two products were assembled and handed over. Throughout 1962, an additional installation batch was produced, consisting of five cars. Next year, the production volume of GT-T transporters was already 10 vehicles per month, and by the end of 1966 it had reached a stable level of 110-120 all-terrain vehicles per month.
In 1968, a branch of RMZ was organized for the production of floating all-terrain vehicles GT-T in Semipalatinsk, and since 1977 the production of these machines, of which more than 10 thousand pieces were assembled, was finally transferred to the branch. In the period from 1983 to the beginning of the 1990s, about 600-700 GT-T tracked transporters were assembled and sold annually in Semipalatinsk. In the 1990s, work was carried out to modernize the machine, in particular, the V-6A diesel engine was replaced with more advanced and powerful Yaroslavl YaMZ-238 engines. The engine compartment was moved to the middle of the tractor, which made it possible to achieve a more even weight distribution of the vehicle. Also, rollers have been developed with the most wear-resistant polyurethane coating.
GT-T in the Museum of military equipment "Combat Glory of the Urals"
The heavy tracked transporter-tractor is a high-speed, floatable, cross-country vehicle with a load-bearing body and front drive wheels. This transporter-tractor with an independent torsion bar suspension is designed to transport people and various cargoes off-road in wooded and swampy terrain and snow-covered virgin lands in the Far North and the Arctic with the simultaneous towing of special wheeled ski trailers or other systems with a total weight of no more than 4 tons. The carrying capacity of the conveyor itself is 2 tons or 23 people, the crew is 2 people. The movement of the conveyor on the water was provided by a caterpillar propeller. To increase the speed of movement of the conveyor afloat when overcoming various water obstacles in the front, quick-detachable hydrodynamic flaps can be installed on the wing flaps of the GT-T hull.
The GT-T conveyor was equipped with water-pumping means, which consisted of a mechanical centrifugal pump, as well as a manual piston pump. To the standard set of spare parts for this all-terrain vehicle, a means of increasing cross-country ability was attached. For example, to improve the adhesion of the tracks of the conveyor to the ground, additional lugs could be used, and for self-extraction when stuck, special chains and a "legendary" log, without which it is difficult to imagine models of Soviet armored vehicles today.
The operation of this vehicle in off-road conditions, very rough terrain with the presence of small vegetation and deep water obstacles did not cause any complaints. In winter, the transporter-tractor could be used even at extremely low ambient temperatures. Due to its qualities, the GT-T was widely used in the Soviet Army until the collapse of the USSR. In addition to the army, the car was also in demand by the national economy. The GT-T tracked transporter-tractor fully managed to share the glory of the pioneers of the development of the North, who successfully passed virgin forests and unsteady peat bogs (mari) with the help of this machine.
The supporting body of the tracked heavy conveyor-tractor was an all-metal, welded frame structure. The base of the hull was sealed, the body was of an open type. The hull of the all-terrain vehicle was divided into three sections: engine-transmission, cab and body. In the front part there was a MTO, which was separated from the cockpit by special partitions and engine guards, located in the center of the cockpit. To the left of the engine was the place of the GT-T driver with chassis controls. In the middle part of the body of the all-terrain vehicle there was a four-seater cabin, and in the aft there was a body. The body and the cabin were not separated from each other. From above, the body could be covered with a special awning made of canvas fabric.
The heart of the transporter-tractor was a 6-cylinder four-stroke liquid-cooled V-6A diesel engine, it developed a maximum power of 200 hp. at 1800 rpm. The engine worked in conjunction with a mechanical two-flow transmission with two planetary-friction steering mechanisms. The transmission had 5 forward gears and one reverse. The maximum theoretical speed of the TG-T on paved roads in fifth gear was 45.5 km / h, the maximum backward speed was limited to 6.54 km / h. At the same time, according to the technical documentation and operating instructions, the average technical speed of the TG-T tractor when driving on a dry dirt road of average quality with a load and a trailer was 22-24 km / h. The average fuel consumption was 90-110 liters per 100 kilometers, which provided the car with a cruising range of about 500 kilometers.
View of the driver's seat GT-T
The undercarriage of the GT-T transporter-tractor consisted of six pairs of rubberized support rollers. The drive wheels were located in the front of the car, and the guide wheels in the rear. The caterpillar track included 92 small links with pivot-floating pins and pinned engagement. The all-terrain vehicle's suspension was independent torsion bar. The movement of the car afloat was ensured by a caterpillar propeller, the maximum speed of the GT-T on calm water did not exceed 6 km / h. To increase the speed afloat, quick-detachable hydrodynamic flaps could be used.
Modern modifications and modernization of GT-T
At present, the Rubtsovsk branch of OAO NPK Uralvagonzavod offers its customers a civil version of the snow and swamp tracked tractor-tractor under the designation GT-TM. This snow and swamp-going vehicle is designed for transportation of rotational and repair crews, delivery of bulky cargo to areas with difficult soil and climatic conditions. In the front part of the GT-TM there is a vibration-insulated cab for the driver and two passengers, in the rear there is a passenger-cargo awning body. Control of a steering-type caterpillar all-terrain vehicle with a hydrostatic steering mechanism. The engine compartment is located in a closed compartment, which is easily accessible when servicing is required. The design of the caterpillar tractor-transporter allows towing of special equipment and trailers. At the same time, the conveyor is able to cross water obstacles on the move.
The all-terrain vehicle is equipped with a more powerful 8-cylinder V-shaped liquid-cooled diesel engine YaMZ-238BV with a working volume of 14.86 liters. This engine of the Yaroslavl Motor Plant develops a power of 310 hp. (228 kW). The mass of the GT-TM in running order reaches 11.6 tons. Carrying capacity of the body increased to 2500 kg, the weight of the towed trailer - up to 5000 kg. According to the official website of the Rubtsovsk Machine-Building Plant, the maximum speed of the all-terrain vehicle, thanks to the installation of a more powerful diesel engine, increased to 60 km / h, the fuel range is 600 km. The temperature operation of the GT-TM snow and swamp-type tracked conveyor-tractor is possible in the range from -45 to +45 degrees Celsius.
GT-TM Rubtsovsk branch of OJSC NPK Uralvagonzavod
On the Russian market today, you can find other modernizations of the well-known Soviet transporter-tractor. For example, the Snegobolotokhod company, a member of the GIRTEK group of companies, has overhauled and modernized more than 1000 different Soviet-made snow and swamp-going vehicles, including GT-T, for more than 15 years of its activity. Currently, the company offers a conveyor model with an 8-cylinder YaMZ-238V engine with a capacity of 240 hp. The maximum speed of such an all-terrain vehicle is 55 km / h. Additionally, the company can manufacture and install on the all-terrain vehicle a metal insulated passenger compartment (kung) for 12 people.
In addition, the company offers a deeply modernized cargo-and-passenger version of the GT-T all-terrain vehicle with a chassis that was lengthened by one roller (now 7) and with a YaMZ-238BL-1 engine with a capacity of 310 hp. The carrying capacity of this version has increased to 4000 kg (1500 kg more than that of MTLB). The total number of passengers in the new enlarged cabin, which has been insulated with Penoplex and sheathed with plywood, is 8 people. The cab heating system was also installed.
GT-T cargo-passenger company "Snow and swamp-going vehicle" with an extended chassis (7 road wheels)
The advantages of the GT-T track-type tracked transporters, which allow them to remain in demand on the market in the 21st century, include their outstanding characteristics. This snow and swamp vehicle is considered one of the most passable, among all models on the domestic market. Its weight is less than that of MTLB, and its track is wider - 560 mm. Taken together, this provides a specific ground pressure at a level of less than 0.25 kgf / cm2.
The performance characteristics of the GT-T:
Overall dimensions: length - 6340 mm, width - 3140 mm (along caterpillar chains), height - 2160 mm.
Weight - 8, 2 tons (filled, with spare parts, without cargo in the back and crew).
Carrying capacity of the body - 2 tons.
The mass of the towed trailer is 4 tons.
The number of seats - 4 (in the cockpit), 21 (in the back).
The power plant is a four-stroke V-6A liquid-cooled diesel engine with a capacity of 200 hp. (at 1800 rpm).
The maximum speed is 45.5 km / h.
Maximum speed afloat - 6 km / h (in calm water).
The capacity of the fuel tanks is 550 liters.
The power reserve is 500 km.