105 years ago, on July 28, 1914, the First World War began. Accusing Belgrade that the Serbs were behind the assassination of Archduke Ferdinand, Austria-Hungary attacked Serbia. Russia announced that it would not allow the occupation of Serbia and began mobilization. On August 1, Germany declared war on Russia.
Nicholas II announces the beginning of the war with Germany from the balcony of the Winter Palace. July 20 (August 2) 1914
"Wolf pit" for Russia
By the beginning of the First World War, the crisis of the capitalist predatory system began. Systemic crisis of the West. The great powers of the West divided the whole world among themselves, and there was no new "living space". Both America, Asia, Africa, Australia, and large islands have been developed. Western parasites (financial and banking houses) of the West controlled most of the planet. We have created the most effective parasitic system of global plunder of countries and peoples. The Financial International was building its own world order - a global slave system.
Everyone fell into slave dependence on the global parasite. Including the Ottoman Empire (the core of the then Muslim world), Indian and Chinese civilizations, Korea and Japan. Only autocratic Russia remained, Russian civilization, in which the networks of global parasites were weak. This did not suit the masters of England and the United States (the "command post" of the Western world was located in London and Washington).
The first serious crisis of capitalism began. To maintain the existence of the parasitic system (vampiric, predatory), it was necessary to constantly expand, draw new victims, donor clients, new countries and peoples into the “financial pyramid”. And those are no longer left. The gigantic pyramid cracked at the seams. The parasite urgently needed a new "living space". The victim was Russia, the Russian people, which for a thousand years had successfully resisted the West. The collapse and plundering of the Russian Empire allowed the West to continue to exist. Also, the masters of London and Washington decided to eliminate competitors within the westernmost project - to destroy and plunder the German world, the Austro-Hungarian and German empires. In addition, the Balkans and the Ottoman Empire were destroyed.
Germany and Austria-Hungary were used to incite the war. Thus, World War II solved several important tasks.
First, the West solved the "Russian question" - it destroyed, dismembered Russia, destroyed and deleted from the history of the Russians, the most rebellious and dangerous people on the planet. A people that carries an alternative to the global slave-owning civilization - a life based on conscience and justice, the co-prosperity of peoples and tribes.
Secondly, one could forget about the crisis of capitalism due to the total robbery of victims and the restructuring of the world system.
Thirdly, the masters of the United States and Britain destroyed competitors within the Western project. Destroyed the German world, put it in the position of a "junior partner". They destroyed monarchies, introduced "democracy" (in fact, plutocracy - the rule of the rich oligarchs, banking houses). The Islamic world was subjected to the same destruction and plunder.
Fourth, by destroying Germany and Russia, the Anglo-Saxons could build their own world order. A sustainable global slave pyramid. The world of the “chosen” and “two-legged tools” masters, consumer slaves.
Thus, the First World War was a trap, a trap for Russia. Russian society had a lot of internal problems and contradictions, but in order to blow up the empire, it needed a fuse, a detonator. This detonator was the world war. The best minds in Russia like Stolypin, Durnovo, Rasputin understood this perfectly. Warned about this. The Russian people did not need this war. They had to fight for the interests of the USA, England and France. Russians were used as "cannon fodder". We had no fundamental contradictions with Germany; Germans and Russians could live perfectly in peace, friendship and cooperation. At the same time, the strategic alliance of Russia and Germany was mortally dangerous for the masters of Paris, London and Washington. Russians and Germans (Germanic and Slavic worlds) could create a huge continental zone of prosperity.
Our external and internal enemies (Westernizers, Freemasons, the "fifth column") thwarted all attempts at rapprochement between Russia and Germany. They torpedoed the 1905 Treaty of Bjork. A huge role in this matter was played by the Western agent of influence, the Russian Western reformer Witte. In return, Russia was finally dragged into the Entente in 1907. From that moment on, a senseless, insane and suicidal war for us became a matter of time and technology. Russia was cynically used in their strategic interests by the masters of the West. They pitted the Russians against the Germans. Formally, Russia was an "ally" of England and France, in fact, from the very beginning, she was prepared as a victim, sentenced to destruction.
The alignment of forces
The crisis of capitalism, the Western world predetermined all the main military-political, economic and national-historical contradictions between the leading powers. By the beginning of 1914, the main contradictions had developed: Anglo-German, Franco-German, Russian-Austrian, Russian-German and Austro-Italian. A whole tangle of contradictions formed in the Balkans: the interests of the Balkan countries, Turkey, Russia, Austria-Hungary, Germany, France and England were connected there.
The manifestation of these contradictions was two military-political blocs: the Triple Alliance - Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy (Rome gradually separated from the Germans), created back in 1879-1882, and the Entente - an alliance of England, France and Russia. In 1891-1893. the Franco-Russian union was formed. In 1904-1907, after resolving a number of mutual contradictions, the Anglo-French and Anglo-Russian agreements were signed.
Also, the world war was preceded by a number of conflicts and local, regional wars, which paved the way for a big war. So, in the 1870s, Russia did not allow Germany to finish off France. In response, in 1878 Russia did not receive the support of Germany at the Berlin Congress following the results of the next Russian-Turkish war. Cooling begins between Berlin and St. Petersburg. Germany is making an alliance with Austria-Hungary (its former traditional enemy) in order to create a counterbalance to Russia. Germany is making a series of colonial conquests. A young German colonial empire is being created, a German navy is being built, which alarms Britain. Germany is late to share the colonial pie and is unhappy. The interests of the German and British colonialists collide in Africa and Turkey. The German capitalist predator needs a new "living space".
The British fought in Afghanistan. Russia conquered Turkestan. Russian and British interests collided in Central Asia and Persia. Against the background of the growing threat from the German Empire, France is making every effort to enter into an alliance with Russia. Due to the Balkan crisis, contradictions with Austria-Hungary, Russian-German economic contradictions and the collapse of the "Union of the Three Emperors" (Russia, Austria and Germany), Russia is moving towards rapprochement with France.
A new predator is emerging in Asia - the Empire of Japan. She is pursuing a policy of enslaving Korea and claiming her share of the pie in China. In 1894 - 1895. Japan is smashing China. However, the West, using the Japanese to "hack" Korea and China, does not allow him to receive all the fruits of victory. Japan's interests are limited. At the same time, the West substitutes Russia. Russians and Japanese are pitched. In Japan, they believe that the main offender who prevented the Japanese from completing the seizure of Chinese territories and Korea is Russia. Japan begins preparations for a war with Russia. In this matter, Britain and the United States provided her full support. The owners of London and Washington are using Japan as a "battering ram" against Russia. Russo-Japanese War 1904-1905 becomes a kind of rehearsal for world war. The masters of the West were able to weaken Russia's position in the Far East and again turn its attention to Europe and the Balkans.
In 1898, the United States crushed the old colonial power - Spain. The Americans take over Cuba, Puerto Rico and the Philippines. Thus, the United States strengthens its strategic positions in the Caribbean and the Pacific. The Americans seize the Isthmus of Panama, pushing the European powers in South America. In 1899, Washington proclaimed the Open Door (Hay Doctrine) policy in China. The Americans are demanding free trade and free penetration of capital in China. With a strong economy, the US offered "free trade" so it could drive out other Western predators and Japan. The United States is embarking on global politics, preparing to seize world leadership. To do this, they need a world war that will weaken the old great powers, including Britain. At the same time, Washington planned to use the war in Europe for enrichment (the United States during the war turned from a world debtor to a world creditor), and to intervene in it at the final stage in order to get the maximum benefit.
London, fearing the rapid economic, military and naval strengthening of Germany, begins to look for "cannon fodder" for the war in Europe. Against the background of the threat from Germany in 1904, the Anglo-French Entente was created. The British and French forget about their past and present contradictions in order to confront the Germans. Attempts by Russia and Germany to get closer at the end of 1904 (Berlin showed a number of signs paying attention to Russia during the war with Japan) in 1905 were thwarted. In 1907 Russia entered into agreements with England. Petersburg recognized the British protectorate over Afghanistan; both sides recognized China's sovereignty over Tibet and abandoned attempts to establish control over it; Persia (Iran) was divided into three zones - Russian in the north, British in the south and neutral in the center of the country.
The situation in the Balkans is getting worse. The capture of Bosnia and Herzegovina by Austria-Hungary in 1908 triggers the Bosnian crisis, which nearly sparked a major war. Serbia and Montenegro express their readiness to start a war against the Austrians. Berlin expresses its readiness to support Vienna. Austria-Hungary is preparing a war against Serbia. Under pressure from Russia, which is not ready for a war with Germany and Austria-Hungary on two fronts, Belgrade concedes. Russia suffers a major diplomatic defeat in the Balkans. Thus, a rehearsal of blowing up the "powder magazine" of Europe was held. In 1909, the war was avoided. In particular, the head of the Russian government, Stolypin, spoke out categorically against the war with Germany and Austria-Hungary, pointing out that "to unleash a war means to unleash the forces of the revolution." In 1911, Stolypin will be killed and there will be no one to reason with Nicholas II in 1914.
Berlin is inclined to think that it is necessary to defeat France and Russia in order to take dominant positions in Europe and in a significant part of the world. At the same time, the German ruling circles were convinced to the end that England would remain neutral. The British did everything to make the Germans keep this illusion until the very beginning of the war. In Austria-Hungary, the "war party" was confident that a victorious war would calm society, preserve the "patchwork empire", and allow new conquests in the Balkans. Especially in Vienna, they wanted to crush Serbia. The assassination of the heir to the throne, Franz Ferdinand, who was an opponent of the war, led to the victory of the "war party".
Meanwhile, the Balkans are still raging. During the First Balkan War of 1912 Bulgaria, Serbia, Montenegro and Greece crushed Turkey. The Turks are losing almost all possessions in Europe. Then the allies cannot share the loot (in particular, the Macedonian question). In 1913 the Second Balkan War begins. Bulgaria starts a war for Macedonia with Serbia, Montenegro and Greece. Romania and Turkey are also opposed to Bulgaria, wishing to profit from the Bulgarians. Bulgaria is defeated, it loses all the territories captured during the First Balkan War and, moreover, South Dobrudja. New controversial issues are emerging in the Balkans. As a result, Turkey and Bulgaria, wanting to take revenge, are leaning towards the side of the German bloc.
Military-political alliances in Europe before the start of the First World War. Source:
The need for a blitzkrieg for Germany
All great powers were preparing for war. Russia recovered from the war with Japan, carried out a number of transformations in the armed forces. But her military and naval programs were never completed. Russia had a good cadre army and a strong officer corps. The problem was the trained reserves. After the destruction of the cadre core of the army, its fighting qualities fell sharply. In addition, the Crimean War, the war with Turkey in 1877-1878. and the Japanese campaign of 1904-1905. showed the depressing quality of the generals, the high command. A big problem, especially after it became clear that the war would be protracted, was the situation with the military-industrial complex of the empire. Russia did not manage to become an industrial power. In the course of the war, all the main types of weapons and equipment will have to be purchased abroad, becoming dependent on the "allies", wasting the country's gold reserves.
By 1914 Germany was the best prepared. Her army was stronger than the Russian and French. The Germans had an advantage in heavy field artillery, military equipment and army organization. The German Empire, unlike its opponents, could deploy fairly well-trained reserves. The high level of training of reserve units was caused by the presence of a powerful officer and non-commissioned officer corps, the availability of a stock of weapons and the corresponding organization. Also, the Second Reich possessed the most developed railway network, the best prepared for military transport and could quickly maneuver forces from the Western to the Eastern Front and vice versa. The military industry of Germany surpassed the Russian and French, taken together, not yielding to the military potential of the entire Entente, together with England.
The Austro-Hungarian military potential was low. However, as it was believed in Berlin and Vienna, it would be enough to occupy the Balkans (defeat Serbia) and contain Russia until the approach of German divisions, which at the first stage of the war would divide France.
France had a strong army, powerful fortresses on the border. The colonies had a large number of manpower. However, the French wanted revenge, overestimated their strength, prepared for a decisive offensive, and not for an active defense. Although they had to wait for the active offensive of Russia on the Eastern Front, the arrival of British troops, reserves from the colonies, to complete the restructuring of the economy and the rear on a war footing. The English expeditionary force was small (only six divisions), but of good quality. In general, the British planned to use Russians, French, Serbs, etc. as "cannon fodder" on the continent. There was also "cannon fodder" of their own - the colonies and dominions had a large supply of manpower, but little or no training at all. In India, there was an indigenous army (about 160 thousand people). Some of these forces could have been transferred to Europe, but it took time. The strength of Britain was in its fleet, which made it possible to block the German naval forces in ports and cut off the Second Reich from sources of raw materials and resources. This made it possible to capture isolated German colonies. British industry made it possible to equalize the potential of the Entente's war industry with that of Germany.
At sea, the Entente, despite all the efforts of Germany, had a significant superiority. The British navy was still the most powerful in the world. The British had 30 dreadnoughts, France and Russia 7 each. Germany and Austria could put up 24 dreadnoughts. The combined Entente fleet had an even greater advantage in obsolete battleships, armored cruisers, and fast light cruisers. The superiority of the Entente at sea made it possible to blockade Germany and Austria-Hungary, cut off their sea communications, colonies, sources of raw materials and resources. The German bloc had to rely only on its own resources, accumulated reserves and raw materials, food resources of South-Eastern Europe and the Ottoman Empire. The Entente had huge human and material resources of Russia, the colonial empires of Britain and France, the whole world was at their service. The domination of the sea and sea communications turned the United States into a rear base, arsenal and treasury of the Entente.
Thus, in a protracted war, the full advantage was on the side of the Entente. True, in 1914, few people thought about it. The governments and general staffs of all the great powers counted on a short war. Germany was in a hurry to start a war until Russia completed the modernization of its armed forces. In Berlin, they planned to crush France with a powerful blow, while Russia was still going to war. Then, together with Austria-Hungary, solve the Russian question. The Germans relied on the superiority of their training and speed of action. At the same time, Berlin counted on Italy's help, or at least on friendly neutrality and on the fact that England would not enter the war. It was advisable for France and especially Russia to wait a few years to complete the military programs. It took time for the Entente's advantage in human and material resources to affect the fronts.
On the whole, Russia generally had to avoid joining a major war, which was strategically beneficial to the masters of the West. The war led to the death of the cadre army - the last support of the autocracy, aroused the hatred of the people who did not need this war, and led to the activation of the heterogeneous "fifth column", to the revolution.
Russian poster of 1914