One of the main goals of early projects of tactical missile systems was to increase the firing range. The first systems of this class could fire at targets at ranges of no more than a few tens of kilometers, while other missiles could already fly hundreds. It was planned to solve the existing problem and provide the troops with the required mobile equipment with relatively long-range missiles within the framework of the 9K71 Temp project. In accordance with the terms of reference, the missile of this complex was supposed to deliver a warhead at a distance of up to 600 km.
By the end of the fifties, the Soviet defense industry had accumulated a lot of experience in the creation of ballistic missiles of various classes. The existing developments and new ideas were planned to be used to create promising systems, including those mounted on self-propelled platforms. On July 21, 1959, the Council of Ministers of the USSR decided to start developing a promising front-line ballistic missile (according to the current classification, an operational-tactical missile system) with an increased firing range. The project received the designation "Temp". In the future, the complex was assigned the index GRAU 9K71.
Complex "Temp" in combat (top) and transport (bottom) positions
NII-1 (now the Moscow Institute of Heat Engineering), headed by A. D. Nadiradze. In addition, OKB-221 of the Barrikady plant (Stalingrad), which was entrusted with the development of a self-propelled launcher and some other ground-based elements of the complex, was to play an important role in the project. It was also planned to involve certain third-party organizations in the project at certain stages. For example, the production of missiles was planned to be deployed at Plant No. 235 in the city of Votkinsk.
In the early stages of the project, the staff of NII-1 formed the general appearance of a promising missile system. It was proposed to transport and launch the rocket using a self-propelled launcher, consisting of a truck tractor with the required characteristics and a semi-trailer with launch equipment. The possibility of creating a simplified launcher for the early stages of testing was also considered. Finally, the Temp complex was to include a new solid-propellant rocket with high range indicators.
The development of a promising self-propelled launcher was carried out by the Barrikady enterprise and SKB-1 of the Minsk Automobile Plant. The mobility of the installation was to be provided by the MAZ-537 four-axle tractor. This all-wheel drive vehicle with a D-12A-525A engine with a power of 525 hp. had a hydromechanical transmission and was intended for transporting semi-trailers with various payloads, including those with special systems. The fifth wheel coupling of the tractor withstood a load of up to 25 tons, which made it possible to tow a semi-trailer weighing up to 65 tons. The maximum speed of the tractor with a trailer, depending on the weight of the latter, reached 55 km / h. Such characteristics of the MAZ-537 machine completely satisfied the developers of the Temp project, which led to its use as a means of transporting the launcher.
The main element of the self-propelled launcher was the 9P11 or Br-225 semi-trailer with a set of necessary equipment. This product was built on the basis of a serial 25-ton MAZ-5248 semi-trailer and received some new units necessary for the operation of missile weapons. The semi-trailer had a frame with a raised front part, equipped with a pivot for installation on the tractor's fifth wheel. The semi-trailer's own undercarriage had two axles with large diameter wheels. All the upper surfaces of the semitrailer frame were used to install certain elements of the missile system.
On the front of the semi-trailer, located above the fifth wheel, was placed a lattice structure necessary to protect the head of the rocket from external influences. In addition, it was proposed to mount thermostating devices for the warhead on it. In the front part of the semi-trailer platform, jacks were placed, necessary to stabilize the semi-trailer when using weapons. The second pair of jacks were at the rear. The semi-trailer platform was given for the placement of a new body with the necessary systems. In its front part there was a cockpit for calculating the rocket complex, and in the rear, launcher units, a lifting device, etc. were mounted.
The launcher included several main units that had the ability to swing on hinges. To launch the rocket, it was proposed to use a compact launch pad, which was lowered to the ground during preparation for firing. The launch pad was equipped with a support ring for installing the rocket, and also had gas protection shields designed to divert hot gases away from the launcher. The design of the table provided for the possibility of turning the support ring together with the rocket, for which manual systems were used. Rotation of the ring in any direction was provided.
It was proposed to transport the rocket on a special boom, which has a set of mountings and a hydraulic lifting drive. In the transport position, the arrow with the rocket was placed horizontally and laid over the body of the semitrailer, passing along its entire length. Immediately before launch, the hydraulic cylinders had to raise the boom to a vertical position and ensure the installation of the rocket on the launch pad. After that, the arrow returned to its original position. The rocket was launched from a vertical position, no guides were provided for by the project.
Self-propelled launcher diagram
The total length of the 9P11 launcher with the tractor in the stowed position reached 18, 2 m, width - 3, 1 m, height - 3, 64 m. A semi-trailer with a rocket weighed about 30, 5 tons. A crew of eight had to serve the launcher. On the march, they were to be located in the cabs of the tractor and semitrailer, in preparation for launch - in the prescribed places inside and outside the equipment.
Together with the Br-225 / 9P11 launcher, some other equipment was to be operated. First of all, a missile carrier and a crane with the appropriate lifting capacity were required. Their task was to supply new ammunition with their subsequent reloading onto the boom of a self-propelled launcher. According to available data, new equipment of these types was not developed, and during the tests, the 9K71 "Temp" complex used existing machines with suitable parameters.
As part of the new project, several other options for the launcher were developed. The first to appear was a project with the working designation Br-234, designed to ensure the early stages of testing. This product was a significantly simplified version of the basic Br-225 installation and was distinguished by the lack of mass of units, from the protection of the missile head to a semi-trailer with a wheeled chassis. Only the most necessary components and assemblies were included in the design of the installation.
In fact, the Br-234 installation was a small frame on supports, equipped with a crew cab, a lifting boom and a launch table. A curious feature of the experimental setup was the mounting of the rear of the frame. It was proposed to mount wheel tires on them, similar to those used on the MAZ-5248 semi-trailer. With their help, it was planned to study the effect of reactive gases on the chassis of the launcher.
In 1960, several other versions of the launcher were being developed with different characteristics. So, the product Br-249 was supposed to be a simplified and lightweight version of the original 9P11. Also, a project was launched for a light installation Br-240, suitable for transportation by existing and future helicopters. In 1961, the Br-264 project was launched, the purpose of which was to install the launcher on a special MAZ-543 chassis. It should be noted that the Br-249 and Br-240 projects were stopped at the development stage. The Br-264 project was brought to the assembly of the first prototype, but the finished vehicle was not tested.
The ballistic missile for the Temp complex received the designation 9M71. Already in the early stages of development, the authors of the project had to face certain difficulties associated with existing technologies. To fulfill the existing requirements for flight range, a high-power engine was required. However, there were no products with the required characteristics at that time. Due to the impossibility of producing blocks of solid fuel of the required dimensions (primarily of a large diameter), the developers of the new rocket had to use a block of several engines, which led to the appearance of a characteristic appearance of the rocket.
The 9M71 rocket had an unusual appearance. She received a tapered head fairing, behind which was placed a slightly expanding body. The tail of the latter was connected to another conical unit, which was connected to the engine blocks. The central and tail sections of the rocket consisted of four tubular engine casings connected to the head block of the hull. Engine nozzles were placed on the tail end of such a body. Next to them were folding lattice stabilizers.
Experimental launcher Br-234
The head compartment of the rocket was given for the placement of the warhead. A special warhead with a capacity of 300 kt was developed especially for the 9M71 rocket. There is also information about the study of the possibility of creating a high-explosive warhead, but this version of combat equipment, apparently, did not leave the early stages of design. The option of equipping the rocket with a chemical warhead was also being worked out. Regardless of the type of warhead, the head compartment of the missile with the warhead was supposed to be separated from the missile unit after the end of the active phase of the flight.
A missile control system was located in the hull behind the warhead. It was proposed to use inertial guidance without a gyro-stabilized platform. The task of the automatics was to monitor the parameters of the rocket's flight and generate commands for the steering machines. Control could only be carried out in the active phase of the flight, for which annular gas rudders were used. Special rings were placed on the nozzles of the engines, which had the ability to swing in different directions and change the thrust vector. Also, to maintain the required trajectory, lattice stabilizers that were folded out before the start were used. For correct targeting, the 9M71 rocket also needed to rotate the launch pad in the direction of the target.
Due to the lack of a relatively large engine with the required power, the 9M71 rocket received four separate solid-propellant rocket units. Each such block was a cylindrical structure of high elongation with a tapered head fairing and two nozzles in the tail. Ballistic powder molded into a block of 9X11 type was used as fuel. To increase the length of the active section of the flight, it was proposed to divide the four engines into two stages. Takeoff and initial acceleration should be carried out with the help of two, and the other two units were responsible for passing the final part of the active section. At the same time, the separation of stages was not used: the rocket remained "intact" until the warhead was dropped.
The 9M71 rocket assembly had a length of 12.4 m with a maximum diameter of 2.33 m. The diameter of the warhead did not exceed 1.01 m. The launch weight of the product was 10.42 tons, of which 8.06 tons were for four blocks of solid fuel. The special warhead weighed 630 kg. The maximum firing range, according to the terms of reference, was supposed to be 600 km.
By the beginning of 1961, NII-1 and OKB-221 completed part of the design work, preparing documentation for several main products. The lead developer of the project presented the design of the 9M71 rocket, which was planned to be produced in Votkinsk, and the Barrikady plant began construction of the Br-234 launcher intended for testing. Soon, new products arrived at the Kapustin Yar landfill for the first checks. At this stage of the work, it was planned to test the fundamental possibility of creating solid-propellant missiles with the required range indicators.
On April 14, 1961, the Br-234 launcher made the first launch of an experimental 9M71 rocket. According to reports, the prototype product was able to deliver the warhead simulator to a distance of 220 km. In this case, the point of impact was 4 km closer to the aiming point. Lateral deviation reached 900 m. Subsequent launches of the first series continued until mid-August. With their help, some of the main characteristics were confirmed, and in addition, the real prospects of the new missile system were proved.
In October of the same year, the second stage of testing began, intended to test a promising complex and confirm its characteristics. The first launches of this stage were carried out using the experimental setup Br-234. In January 62, a prototype of the Br-225 launcher was delivered to the Kapustin Yar test site. Until May, he completed three launches. In the summer, tests were suspended to carry out additional design work designed to correct the identified deficiencies.
Launcher and experimental rocket during testing
During the tests, it was found that the rocket with four engine blocks turned out to be quite heavy and therefore could not show the required firing range. It was experimentally found that the 9M71 product in its current form can hit targets in the range of ranges from 80 to 460 km. Thus, the actual firing range was significantly less than required by the technical specifications. In addition, an unacceptable increase in the deflection of the warhead was observed. After separation, the warhead had a tendency to oscillate in yaw at angles up to 60 °. Because of this, the trajectory of its flight changed, which led to a deviation from the aiming point at a considerable distance. In the first tests, the range miss reached several tens of kilometers.
The improvement of the 9K71 complex and the 9M71 missile continued until the winter of 1962. In December, tests were resumed. Over the next few months, 12 launches of upgraded missiles were carried out. The design flaws again made themselves felt. Half of the launched products collapsed during the flight and could not hit the conventional targets. Six other missiles, in turn, showed an unacceptably high deviation from the aiming point, which did not meet the customer's requirements.
Initially, in 1963, it was planned to start serial production of a new missile system. However, these plans were never realized. Based on the results of two stages of testing, it was decided to abandon the further development of the Temp complex. On July 16, the Council of Ministers decided to stop all work. The official reason for this decision was the lag behind the flight test schedule, as well as insufficient technical characteristics of the finished products.
By the time the tests were completed, only two experimental launchers of the Br-234 and Br-225 models had been built. Also, Votkinsk plant # 235 produced a number of 9M71 missiles in basic and modified configurations. All of these products were used at different stages of testing. In connection with the new instructions, tests were stopped, and the production of the required equipment and weapons was stopped. The further fate of the built launchers is unknown. Apparently, they were disassembled, and the basic units were later used as part of new prototypes.
One of the main problems of the 9M71 rocket and the entire 9K71 Temp complex as a whole was the poor design of the power plant. The industry could not produce blocks of solid fuel with the required parameters, which is why the specialists of NII-1 had to use the existing products. This led to the formation of not the most successful layout of the engines, which negatively affected the overall and weight parameters of the rocket, as well as the maximum firing range. As a result, the finished complex did not meet the technical specifications and was not of interest to the customer. The work was curtailed in favor of more successful projects.
Nevertheless, the Temp project did have some positive consequences. The 9M71 product confirmed the fundamental possibility of creating operational-tactical missiles with solid fuel engines. In addition, a large amount of information has been accumulated on the operation of annular gas rudders, lattice stabilizers and other new systems that were used for the first time in domestic practice. Thus, the 9K71 "Temp" complex with the 9M71 missile did not reach service in the army, but some developments on this system were later used in new projects brought to mass production.