The heroic defense of Tula and the defeat of the Crimean Turkish army on the Shivoron river

The heroic defense of Tula and the defeat of the Crimean Turkish army on the Shivoron river
The heroic defense of Tula and the defeat of the Crimean Turkish army on the Shivoron river
The heroic defense of Tula and the defeat of the Crimean Turkish army on the Shivoron river

Renewal of the war

After the uprising in Kazan, the Astrakhan prince Yadygar-Mukhammed (Ediger) was proclaimed the new khan. Interestingly, he was previously in the Russian service and participated in the Kazan campaign in 1550. The Astrakhan prince in March 1552 rushed to Kazan at the head of a detachment of Nogai. All Russian officials, merchants and military men who were in the capital of the khanate at the time of the coup, and taken during the outbreak of hostilities, the Cossacks were taken to the square and executed in the most brutal ways. Yadygar launched an offensive on the Mountain side (How Ivan the Terrible took Kazan).

It was an open challenge. The people of Kazan acted deliberately and uncompromisingly, cutting off their path to reconciliation.

Moscow could not come to terms with the collapse of its plans in relation to Kazan, because everything was already going well, it only remained to finish the job. The Russian kingdom began preparations for a new campaign against Kazan. The blockade by Russian outposts of the river arteries of the Kazan Khanate was immediately resumed. Many governors believed that the hike would be winter, as before, when the rivers and swamps were frozen, a sled path would open. Ivan Vasilievich abandoned the idea of ​​a winter hike. In Sviyazhsk there was now a forward base where heavy cargo could be delivered by water. Already in late March - early April 1552, siege artillery, ammunition and provisions were sent to Sviyazhsk from Nizhny Novgorod.

In April-May, a large army (up to 150 thousand people) was assembled to participate in the campaign in Moscow, Kashira, Kolomna and other cities. The Ertaul regiment (reconnaissance, patrol) was concentrated in Murom, in Kashira - the Right Hand regiment, in Kolomna - the Big, Left Hand, Advance Regiment. A large army under the command of the governor Gorbatogo-Shuisky was already in Sviyazhsk.


Devlet-Giray invasion

Part of the troops had to move south to repel the attack on the Russian "Ukrainians" of the Crimean troops of the new Khan Devlet-Girey. In the Crimea in 1551, great changes took place: Khan Sahib-Girey displeased the Ottoman Sultan Suleiman by refusing to march on Persia. They decided to replace him with Devlet-Giray. To distract Sahib, he was ordered to march to the North Caucasus, to punish the recalcitrant Circassian tribes. Meanwhile, the new khan Devlet with a detachment of janissaries arrived in the Crimea and occupied Bakhchisarai. All local nobility went over to the side of the new khan. The army that went to the Caucasus also went over to the side of Devlet. Sahib-Girey and his heir Emin-Girey, all the royal sons were killed at the direction of Devlet.

Turkey and the Crimean Horde tried to disrupt the Russian campaign against Kazan. It was far and difficult to send troops to Kazan, so they decided to stop the Russians in the usual way. Distract at the southern turn. Devlet was reinforced with janissaries and artillery. They raised the 100-thousandth Crimean horde. The moment seemed convenient, the Russians were heading east, they could break into the interior regions and plunder to their hearts' content, take away a large yasyr. The Russians will have to return the army from the campaign against Kazan. In addition, Devlet wanted to strengthen his position in the horde with a successful campaign against Russia.

In June 1552, Devlet was informed that the Russian army had already advanced to Kazan and was far from Moscow, so it would not have time to reach the southern borders and stop the invasion. The Crimean horde went along the Izyum Way to ruin the Ryazan region, then was going to go to Kolomna.However, the Cossacks reported the threat to the Russian tsar in time. Ivan IV orders to push the regiments to the southern borders of the Big, Front and Left arm. The Tatar patrols discovered that the Russian regiments were deployed on the Oka. Devlet did not dare to engage in a big battle and, on the advice of his Murzas, who did not want to leave without loot, decided to turn the horde to Tula places.

Battle of Tula

On June 21, 1552, the advanced forces of the Crimean army reached Tula. Seeing that the city could not be taken on the move, most of the Crimeans departed in corrals to capture the yasyr. The Tula garrison was headed by Prince Grigory Temkin-Rostovsky. There was a small garrison in the city, which could not resist the enemy in the field.

But the stone Tula Kremlin, erected in 1514-1520, was a powerful fortress. Nine battle towers, protruding beyond the line of the walls and providing, thanks to this, the conduct of not only frontal, but also flanking fire, had 3-4 battle tiers, on which stood heavy squeaks. Passage towers (four) were closed with powerful oak gates and falling iron bars. The walls had a combat passage from which the defenders could shoot from hand weapons. At the foot of the walls there were loopholes for firing cannons. In addition, even earlier, in 1509, an oak prison was delivered. The stone Kremlin was inside a wooden fortress.

On the same day, a messenger from Tula arrived in Kolomna and informed Ivan Vasilyevich that the Crimeans had invaded the Tula lands, laid siege to the city and ravaged the surroundings. Having received this news, the sovereign sent a regiment under the command of governor Peter Shchenyatev and Andrei Kurbsky to the rescue of Tula Right hand. Also, the advance regiment of princes Ivan Pronsky and Dmitry Khilkov was nominated to the Tula places from Roslavl-Ryazan, a part of the Great Regiment of Mikhail Vorotynsky from the Kolomna region. The remaining forces of the Russian army, led by Ivan Vasilyevich, were ready to go to the aid of the advanced regiments, if there was such a need. The next day, when a new Tula messenger arrived with the news of the arrival of the entire horde of the Crimean king Devlet, Ivan Vasilyevich set out from Kolomna to Tula.

On June 22, the main forces of the Crimean Turkish army reached Tula. The city was surrounded from all sides, artillery opened fire. The Tula fortress was hit with burning cannonballs, and fires broke out in places. The townspeople, including women and children, extinguished the fire. Devlet ordered the troops to attack. The main role was played by the Turkish janissaries, since the Tatars had long forgotten how to storm the fortress. All day the Turks and Tatars attacked the fortress, but all attacks were repulsed. The garrison was helped by the townspeople and the inhabitants of the surrounding villages who fled under the protection of the city walls. By evening, the enemy was able to break through one of the gates, but the defenders not only repulsed the attack, but closed the gap with a blockage of logs and stones.

Meanwhile, a regiment of the Right Hand approached the city, which spent the night a few hours away from Tula. In the early morning of June 23, the Turks and Tatars, with the support of artillery, resumed the assault. They were encouraged by the fact that the garrison was small and would no longer be able to repel a massive attack. However, the Tula fiercely fought back, inspired by the news that the king was approaching the city with all his army.


Defeat of the Crimean Horde

Meanwhile, a rumor began to spread among the Crimeans about the approach of a large Russian army led by Ivan Vasilyevich himself. The scouts reported that numerous Russian regiments were marching towards Tula. Soon, from the walls of the Tula Kremlin, it became clear that the army was going to the city. The Tula army began to prepare for a large sortie.

Devlet-Girey got scared and decided to leave from under Tula until the regiments of the Moscow Tsar approached. Disorder and panic began in the Crimean camp. At this favorable moment, the Tula militia made a sortie. At the same time, even women and children took part in the attack. The Turks and Tatars, who did not expect such impudence from the besieged and small enemy and demoralized by the departure of their king, wavered and fled.The Crimeans abandoned their camp, carts with good, and "all their acquisitions are silver, gold and vestments." Russian warriors were able to exterminate many enemies who did not manage to escape, including the tsar's brother-in-law. Huge booty was captured, all the artillery, ammunition.

Soon the Russian regiments, sent to save Tula, approached the city. They stood in the place of the Crimean camp. At this time, Crimean corral detachments began to return to Tula, plundering and ravaging Tula places. A total of about 30 thousand soldiers. They were not warned that the khan had already left Tula and Russian regiments had come here. The Russian army of 15,000 was headed by Shchenyatev and Kurbsky. Stunned by the departure of the Khan and the appearance of the Russian army, the Crimeans could not offer strong resistance and were utterly defeated. A large number of Tatars were killed and captured, the captured people were released.

Then the Russian regiments went after the Crimean horde, catching up and crushing the lagging Tatar detachments. On the banks of the Shivoron River, which flows into the Upa, the regiments of Shchenyatev and Kurbsky caught up with the main forces of Devlet. The Crimeans still had a numerical superiority, however, they were obviously demoralized by the current situation and could not organize a rebuff, surround and defeat the Russians. As a result of a fleeting, but bloody battle (in which Kurbsky was wounded), the Tatars were again utterly defeated. The remnants of the horde fled, abandoning the remaining wagon train, herds of horses and camels. They captured many Tatars. It was possible to free most of the captives captured by the Crimeans for sale into slavery.

Disruption of enemy plans

In the evening of June 23, the Russian tsar received news of the victory at Tula, he stopped the troops and spent the night near Kashira. Captives and trophies were brought to him. Many Crimean predators were executed. Other prisoners were sent to Moscow with the khan's wagon train, camels and Turkish artillery. Then the tsar with the army returned to Kolomna.

The scouts who returned from the "Field" reported that the Crimeans were hastily running, making 60–70 miles a day, throwing many tortured horses. It was clear that this year the threat from the Crimea was eliminated. Ivan Vasilievich gave the troops 8 days to rest, then the regiments went to Vladimir and further to Murom.

Thus, the heroic defense of Tula and the defeat of the Crimean Turkish army under the walls of the city and on the Shivoron River thwarted the enemy's plans. It was not possible to destroy the Russian lands, the tsarist army (part of it) was diverted to the southern borders for only a few days.

Then the Russian regiments again moved to Kazan and took it. Devlet could only indifferently watch the fall of the Kazan kingdom, write to Ivan the Terrible about friendship and demand money. The Crimean horde suffered serious losses and only in 1555 dared to attack the Russian lands again.

Ivan Vasilievich did not forget about strengthening the southern borders. In 1553, on the banks of the Shivoron River, near the battlefield, the Dedilov fortress was restored (it died during the Horde invasion in the 13th century). In the same year, the Shatsk city was erected, which strengthened the defense of the Ryazan region. In 1555 a new fortress was built in Bolkhov. As a result, the defensive line on the Tula and Ryazan borders was strengthened.


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