On May 9, 2010, the military marched along Red Square in Moscow, as usual. Celebrating the next anniversary of the victory of the Soviet Union in the Great Patriotic War, representatives of all branches of the armed forces took part in the parade. The special attention of the public, of course, was attracted by the equipment, from the well-deserved "thirty-fours" to the latest missile systems.
Part one, historical
Honored veterans were the first to appear on the square. Among them were the famous front-line vehicles GAZ-67B and Willys-MV ("jeep"). By the way, it was according to the drawings of the "Willis" that the off-road vehicles GPW were assembled on the Ford conveyors, the name of which has become a household name - simply "jeep".
In addition, among the legendary "oldies", the SU-100 self-propelled artillery mounts and the T-34-85 medium tanks took part in the parade. Such self-propelled guns, "tank killers", appeared only at the very end of the war, as a response to the emergence of new German heavy tanks, and were manufactured on the basis of the same T-34-85 (72% of the SU-100 parts were borrowed from the T-34-85).
After the war, these rather successful machines were modernized more than once and remained in service for more than one decade. Their impressive barrel and weighted 100-mm shells made it possible to effectively deal with the increased armor protection of new tanks. They were also among the shortcomings: the number of shots in the ammunition had to be reduced, and the rate of fire also decreased. And the protrusion of the barrel turned out to be so large that it made it difficult to maneuver on rough terrain. The SU-100 could easily bury it in the ground.
But the T-34-85 was never officially withdrawn from service by the Soviet army at all: it was "retired" only in 1993, although, of course, in reality, such tanks began to be replaced with new ones back in the mid-1950s. This version of the famous medium tank was produced since 1944 and was also created as a response to the appearance on the front of very dangerous opponents, the German "Tigers" (Panzerkampfwagen VI) and "Panthers" (Panzerkampfwagen V). The 76 mm T-34-76 gun did not take the powerful armor of these rivals, which forced the designers to switch to an 85 mm cannon.
In addition to the new T-34-85 cannon, the updated tank had a more spacious turret, which now housed three of the four crew members - among them a shooter appeared, which made it possible to relieve the commander from this role, who could now fully concentrate on his main duties in battle. This tower was cast, with reinforced armor protection; Many experts believe that it was in the T-34-85 modification that these tanks achieved the ideal balance of firepower, protection and maneuverability.
Part two, modern
The modern military equipment of the Russian army followed on to Red Square. Interestingly, not all of it is made in Russia. For example, the Dozor-B light armored personnel carrier is a product of the Kharkov Engineering Bureau from fraternal Ukraine. This 6, 3-ton reconnaissance and patrol vehicle was developed already in the 2000s and, of course, taking into account the requirements of modern warfare. The body made of armored steel and armored glass are complemented by reinforced underbody protection, which protects against detonation. The 12, 7-mm anti-aircraft machine gun mounted on the roof is remotely controlled and horizontally rotates 360 degrees.
Another modern army car shown at the parade is also almost a novelty, developed in 2005 by the GAZ-2975 "Tiger", or, as journalists called it, "Russian" Hammer. "Indeed, in a number of characteristics, the "Tiger" is at least not inferior to the American "Hummers", moreover, it costs almost half as much. This SUV is capable of climbing a slope of up to 45 degrees and heeling on a slope up to a slope of 30 degrees. Tire pressure regulation allows you to move even on impassable mud. It is interesting that initially the "Tigers" were developed by order of the military department of the United Arab Emirates, which also paid for the design work so that these cars would later enter service with the UAE army. The contract was never signed, but GAZ retained the cars ready for production - and, it seems, the Russian military liked it.
But the UAE purchased several hundred samples of the BMP-3, which also participated in this year's Victory Parade. This battle-tested vehicle has no competitors in its class in terms of armament. It is equipped with 30- and 100-mm semi-automatic cannons (capable of firing even anti-tank guided missiles), there are also coaxial machine guns.
Another piece of modern technology that has been tested many times, which was shown at the parade, is the BTR-80. Although in 2008 the Russian army began the transition to the new BTR-90, these vehicles have remained the main armored personnel carriers of our armed forces since the second half of the 1980s. Their latest versions, with enhanced armament, may well be called not armored personnel carriers, but quite full-fledged infantry fighting vehicles, only not with a tracked, but with a wheelbase. For example, on the BTR-82, instead of a 14.5-mm heavy machine gun, a 30-mm rapid-fire cannon can also be installed.
The equipment that entered the parade gradually became "heavy": followed by the T-90A tanks, a modified main battle tank of the Russian army. Unfortunately, the transition to this modern machine is somehow very delayed: it has been officially in service since 1992, in total we have a little more than 400 different modifications of the T-90, while the T-72s created in the 1970s are almost 10 thousand. It's a pity - this tank, in general, is not inferior to the most modern competitors. Its unambiguous advantages include exceptionally high cross-country ability and reliability, as well as - traditionally - low cost. Today experts consider this tank to be transitional to the next, already fourth, generation of tanks. The corresponding T-95 project has been being developed for quite some time at the Uralvagonzavod design bureau. Earlier, officials have repeatedly promised to start producing the "radically new" T-95 in 2010, then limited themselves to promises to demonstrate it at the traditional arms exhibition in Nizhny Tagil. It remains to wait for the exhibition.
A fundamentally new machine is also being created on the basis of the next participant in the parade - ACS "Msta-S". However, this has already been written ("Self-propelled double-barreled gun"). The Msta-S itself, which entered service in 1989, has not yet become outdated. The "C" in its name means "self-propelled" - in contrast to the towed howitzer "Msta-B" that formed the basis of this ACS. In fact, the Msta-S is the same powerful rifled 152mm cannon mounted on the undercarriage of the T-80 tank. A pleasant and useful addition to it is the mounted on the tower a heavy 12, 7-mm machine gun "Utes", capable of firing, including at targets flying at an altitude of 1.5 km.
Following the self-propelled guns on Red Square, Buk-M 1-2, modernized Buk anti-aircraft missile systems were shown. Of course, the whole complex would hardly be of interest to the general public - it includes a number of machines, including a target detection station, a command post, a launcher, repair and maintenance vehicles, and so on. The parade was attended only by the most spectacular component of the air defense system, an SPG. And although the Buk-Ms themselves were modernized in the late 1970s, in the second half of the 1990s they were again modified to use new missiles capable of speeds up to Mach 4.Buk-M 1-2 remains a dangerous force capable of striking tactical ballistic and aircraft missiles, ground, air and sea targets.
Another participant in the parade is the heavy flame-throwing system "Buratino", the salvo of which, according to the military, destroys all living things within a radius of 3 km. Externally, the TOS-1 looks like a tank, on which, instead of a turret, a package of guides that can hold 30 missiles is installed. The fire can be conducted both singly and in doublets - or you can release the entire "clip" in just 7, 5 seconds. However, it is better to read about this really terrible weapon in our article "Buratino Lights".
Finally, the direct heirs of the Katyushas during the war, the Smerch multiple launch rocket systems (MLRS), the most powerful in the world, swept across the square. It is believed that the Tornadoes are almost invulnerable to the enemy. Imagine: having received the target designation data, such a machine is fully prepared for battle in 3 minutes, fires a full volley in 38 seconds - and in another minute it is removed from the spot. The enemy does not have time to respond. If anyone remains alive at all: jet ammunition "works" at a distance of up to 90 km, covering an area of up to 672 thousand square meters. m. Unfortunately, in the conditions of those wars with which the military of both our country and the whole world have to deal with in recent years, such equipment is not yet very suitable. A salvo of "Smerch" at the settlement where the militants took refuge will leave nothing of it, neither the militants, nor the civilian population.
After the Smerch, the parade met the S-400 anti-aircraft missile system and the Iskander operational-tactical complexes, another hero of our reviews, about which it is better to read the relevant notes: Triumph and Iskander the Great. Moreover, these are really very interesting and effective examples of modern weapons - to illustrate, suffice it to say that the Triumph is capable of simultaneously firing at 36 air targets, striking aircraft, cruise missiles, ballistic missile warheads at a distance of up to 400 km. Impressive? Impressive.
The main stars closed the parade, as it should be. And the main stars, as it should be, were RT-2PM2, they are also "strategic mobile missile systems", they are also "Topol-M". They carry a solid-propellant three-stage rocket 15Zh65, developed after the collapse of the USSR, a thunderstorm of any enemy. With a range of up to 11 thousand km, it delivers to the target a 1, 2-ton thermonuclear charge with a capacity of 550 kilotons of TNT. According to the assurances of the military, this missile is capable of penetrating any existing missile defense system, as well as any of those that may appear in the near and medium term. It remains to add that this Victory Parade was the first demonstration to the general public of new weapons in the arsenal of our nuclear forces.
Video: Victory Parade 2010
Celebrating the next anniversary of the victory of the Soviet Union in the Great Patriotic War, representatives of all branches of the armed forces took part in the parade. The special attention of the public, of course, was attracted by the equipment, from the well-deserved "thirty-fours" to the latest missile systems.