Buk and Tunguska: Options for Perfection

Buk and Tunguska: Options for Perfection
Buk and Tunguska: Options for Perfection

The Buk-M2E anti-aircraft missile system is a multifunctional, highly mobile medium-range air defense system.

Ulyanovsk Mechanical Plant OJSC (UMP OJSC), which is part of the Almaz-Antey Air Defense Concern, is one of the world's leading manufacturers of short and medium-range Ground Forces air defense systems, as well as radar systems. For the fifth decade, the company's products have been supplied to dozens of foreign countries. These are such world-famous systems and complexes as the Shilka air defense system, the Tunguska air defense missile system and its modification - the Tunguska-M air defense missile system, the Orion product, the Buk air defense missile system and its modifications Buk-M1 air defense missile system, Buk-M1-2 ", SAM" Buk-M2E ". The design idea does not stand still and today UMP OJSC offers new, even more advanced air defense systems and complexes.

SAM "Buk-M2E"

The lead manufacturer of the Buk-M2E air defense missile system is OJSC Ulyanovsk Mechanical Plant, and the lead developer of the design documentation for the complex as a whole and the main combat assets is OJSC Scientific Research Institute of Instrument Engineering. Tikhomirov "(Zhukovsky). The developer of the design documentation for the target detection station 9S18M1-3E - JSC "NIIIP" (Novosibirsk).

The Buk-M2E anti-aircraft missile system is a multifunctional highly mobile medium-range air defense system that ensures successful combat work both in a noise-free environment and in conditions of intense radio countermeasures, striking any types of aerodynamic targets, including tactical ballistic missiles, special aviation, cruise and anti-radar missiles, as well as surface targets (destroyer and missile boat class) and ground-based radio contrast targets. The deployment of the combat assets of the complex on self-propelled tracked (or wheeled) chassis of high cross-country ability, short deployment and folding times (up to 5 minutes) ensure high mobility of the complex. In terms of its tactical and technical characteristics, the complex significantly surpasses the existing foreign counterparts.

The automated control of the complex's combat operations is carried out by the command post (CP), which receives information about the air situation from the target detection station or a higher command post (VKP) and transmits target designation and control commands to six batteries via technical communication lines.

Each battery as part of one self-propelled firing unit (SPU), attached to it by one launch-charging unit (ROM) or one illumination and guidance radar (RPN) with two ROMs, has four target channels and eight firing channels.

The firing of tracked targets is carried out by both single and salvo launches of anti-aircraft guided missiles (SAM).

Used in the complex, a highly effective missile defense system with a solid-propellant rocket engine and flexibly adaptable combat equipment to various types of targets allows you to confidently hit targets in the entire range of the complex's engagement zone:

- by range - 3.0-45 km;

- in height - 0, 015-25 km.

At the same time, the missile defense system provides a flight range of up to 70 km and a flight altitude of up to 30 km.

In the combat assets of the complex, modern phased antenna arrays are used with an effective command method of phase control, which allows the complex to simultaneously track and hit up to 24 targets with a minimum time interval. The probability of hitting a target with one missile is 0.9-0.95. The reaction time of the complex is 10-12 s.

The real effectiveness of modern tactical and operational-tactical air defense systems is largely determined by their capabilities for successful combat work on missile targets: anti-radar, cruise and ballistic missiles. SAM "Buk-M2E" can hit missile targets with an effective reflective surface (EOP) of 0.05-0.1 m2 and the probability of hitting 0.6-0.7.

The maximum speed of the targeted tactical ballistic missiles is 1200 m / s.

The defeat of cruise missiles and other targets (such as remotely piloted vehicles - RPVs, unmanned aerial vehicles - UAVs, etc.) flying at low and extremely low altitudes, in conditions of wooded and rugged terrain, is provided by the complex due to the presence of an illumination radar and guidance (RPN) with an antenna post, rising to a height of 21 m.

Placing combat assets on high-speed self-propelled tracked chassis, the minimum deployment and folding time of the air defense missile system (no more than 5 minutes without an on-load tap-changer), the ability to change the positions of the main combat assets with the equipment turned on in 20 seconds, determine the high mobility of the complex.

Modern hardware and software implementation of anti-jamming channels with confident functioning of the complex's combat assets in intense active interference with a power of up to 1000 W / MHz, a highly efficient optoelectronic system (OES), implemented on the basis of two matrix channels (thermal and television) and allowing the main combat means of the complex - SOU 9A317E in the OES mode (practically without microwave radiation), provide high noise immunity and survivability of the complex.

In 2009-2010. The Buk-M2E air defense missile system has undergone a real test in conditions as close as possible to combat conditions, with the conduct of multilateral volumetric flight and firing tests at the ranges of the RF Ministry of Defense and a foreign customer. In the most difficult weather and meteorological conditions (ambient temperature - up to plus 50 ° С, high dustiness of the air, wind - up to 25-27 m / s) when exposed to intense noise barrage interference with a power of up to 1000 W / MHz, firing tests both for single and and for several targets of various classes and purposes simultaneously in the affected area, completed successfully. They were a real test of the limiting capabilities of the Buk-M2E air defense missile system and confirmed its high tactical and technical characteristics, as well as the great potentialities inherent in the development of the complex.

ZSU 2S6M1 "Tunguska-M1"

The lead developer of the "Tunguska" complex and its modifications is the State Unitary Enterprise "Instrument-making Design Bureau" (Tula), the main manufacturer is OJSC "Ulyanovsk Mechanical Plant". The main combat weapon of the complex is the 2S6M1 Tunguska-M1 anti-aircraft self-propelled gun (ZSU), which is designed for air defense of motorized rifle and tank units of troops in all types of their combat operations. ZSU provides detection, identification of nationality, tracking and destruction of air targets (tactical aircraft, helicopters, including hovering, cruise missiles, remotely piloted aircraft) when working from a place, in motion and from short stops, as well as the destruction of ground and surface targets and targets dropped by parachutes. In the ZSU, for the first time, the combination of two types of weapons (rocket and cannon) with a single radar and instrument complex was achieved.


The cannon armament of the ZSU consists of two double-barreled high-rate anti-aircraft guns of 30 mm caliber. The high total rate of fire - up to 5000 rounds per minute - ensures effective destruction of high-speed targets located in the firing zone for a short time. The high rate of fire, combined with high aiming accuracy due to the stabilization of the firing line, ensures high efficiency of firing at air targets in motion. The ammunition load is 1904 pieces of 30-mm rounds. Each machine has independent power supply systems.

The missile armament of the ZSU is 8 anti-aircraft guided missiles. The rocket is a solid-propellant bicaliber two-stage with a detachable starting engine. Rocket guidance to the target - radio command with an optical communication line. High maneuverability, with overloads up to 35 g, allows hitting high-speed and maneuvering targets. The average flight speed for the maximum range is 600 m / s.

The experience of operating previous modifications of the ZSU showed that it is necessary to increase the noise immunity of the installation when firing missile weapons at targets equipped with optical interference, as well as to introduce into the ZSU equipment for automated reception and implementation of target designation from a higher command post in order to increase the effectiveness of the combat use of the ZSU battery during a massive raid. goals. The result of the implementation of these areas of modernization was the creation of the ZSU 2S6M1 "Tunguska-M1" with significantly improved combat characteristics.

For the ZSU 2S6M1, a new missile with a pulsed optical transponder was developed and the missile control equipment was modernized, which made it possible to significantly increase the noise immunity of the missile control channel and increase the likelihood of hitting targets operating under the cover of optical interference. Equipping the rocket with a radar proximity fuse with a firing radius of up to 5 m significantly increased the effectiveness of the ZSU in the fight against small targets. The increase in the operating time of the rocket elements made it possible to increase the range of destruction of targets by the rocket from 8000 to 10000 m.

The introduction of equipment for the automated reception and processing of external target designation data from a command post of the PPRU type has significantly increased the effectiveness of the combat use of the ZSU battery during a massive raid of targets.

The digital computing system of the ZSU was modernized on the basis of a new computer, which made it possible to expand the functional capabilities of the DCS in solving combat and control tasks, as well as to increase the accuracy of tasks.

The modernization of the sighting optical equipment made it possible to significantly simplify the process of target tracking by the gunner, while simultaneously increasing the tracking accuracy and reducing the dependence of the effectiveness of the combat use of the optical channel on the level of professional training of the gunner.

The modernization of the radar system ensured the reception and implementation of external target designation data, the operation of the gunner's "unloading" system. The reliability of the equipment has also been increased, technical and operational characteristics have been improved.

The use of a more powerful gas turbine engine with a doubled resource has made it possible to increase the power of the ZSU energy system and reduce power drawdowns when working with the weapon guidance hydraulic drives.

Currently, work is underway to embed television and thermal imaging channels with an automatic tracking machine into the ZSU 2S6M1, and the detection and target designation station (SOC) is being modernized in order to increase the target detection area in height up to 6000 m (instead of the current 3500 m) by introducing two angles the position of the SOC antenna vertically. The carried out factory tests of the upgraded model of the ZSU 2S6M1 showed the effectiveness of the introduced upgrade options when working on air and ground targets. The presence of television and thermal imaging channels with an automatic tracking ensures the presence of a passive target tracking channel and the all-day use of ZSU missile weapons.

Providing combat work on the move, directly in the battle formations of the covered military units, the Tunguska ZSU has no analogues in the world in terms of the effectiveness of protection against air attack weapons that raid at low altitudes.

Popular by topic