Tactical missile system D-200 "Onega"

Tactical missile system D-200 "Onega"
Tactical missile system D-200 "Onega"

In the mid-fifties of the last century, work began in our country to study the topic of guided missiles for self-propelled missile systems. Using the gained groundwork and experience, several new projects were subsequently created. One of the results of this work was the emergence of the project of the D-200 Onega tactical missile system. This system did not leave the testing stage, but contributed to the emergence of some new projects.

The theoretical basis for the creation of advanced guided missiles was created in 1956-58 by the efforts of specialists from the Perm OKB-172. They managed to determine the main features of promising technology. In addition, new technical solutions and technologies have been developed that can improve the characteristics of promising technology. In 1958, work began on the implementation of existing developments in the form of promising projects. On February 13, the Council of Ministers of the USSR issued a decree on the beginning of the creation of two rocket complexes of the ground forces with guided solid-propellant missiles. One of the projects was named "Ladoga", the second - "Onega".

The goal of the Onega project was to create a self-propelled tactical missile system with a single-stage guided solid-propellant missile. The firing range was set at 50-70 km. The complex was planned to include a rocket, a self-propelled launcher and a set of auxiliary equipment necessary for their maintenance.

Tactical missile system D-200 "Onega"
Tactical missile system D-200 "Onega"

Diagram of the D-200 rocket. Figure Militaryrussia.ru

The head developer of the Onega project was the design bureau of plant No. 9 (Sverdlovsk), which assigned it the working designation D-200. The chief designer was F. F. Petrov. It was also planned to involve several other organizations in the work. For example, SKB-1 of the Minsk Automobile Plant was to be responsible for the development of one of the versions of the launcher, and the assembly of experimental equipment was entrusted to the Uralmashzavod enterprise under the leadership of OKB-9.

According to reports, one of the variants of the self-propelled launcher for the Onega complex was designated D-110K. The MAZ-535B four-axle wheeled chassis, developed by the Minsk Automobile Plant specifically for use as a carrier of missile systems, was chosen as the basis for this vehicle. A set of special equipment for transporting, servicing and launching new missiles should have been installed on the base chassis.

Being a special modification of the MAZ-535 tractor, the chassis of the MAZ-535B missile systems used a number of its units, and also had some differences. On the riveted-welded frame of the machine, in front of it, the cab and the engine compartment located behind it were placed. Other parts of the car were given for the installation of special equipment. In the case of the Ladoga and Onega projects, it was about the use of a launcher with a guide, missile maintenance facilities, navigation and control systems.

A diesel engine D12A-375 with a capacity of 375 hp was mounted on the chassis behind the cab. With the help of a mechanical transmission, torque was transmitted to all wheels of the car, which were used as driving wheels. The undercarriage had a design based on wishbones and longitudinal torsion bars. In addition, the first and fourth axles were additionally reinforced with hydraulic shock absorbers. The design of the machine made it possible to transport cargo weighing up to 7 tons, tow a trailer weighing up to 15 tons and move along the highway at a speed of up to 60 km / h.

According to reports, the D-110K self-propelled launcher received a beam guide for a ballistic missile. This unit was installed at the rear of the chassis and was equipped with hydraulic guidance drives. The design of the launcher made it possible to lift the rocket to the required elevation angle corresponding to the intended flight program. In the transport position, the guide with the rocket was located horizontally, above the roof of the cab and the engine compartment.

An alternative self-propelled launcher called the D-110 was also developed. This vehicle was based on the Object 429 chassis, which later became the basis for the MT-T heavy multipurpose tractor. Initially, the "Object 429" was intended to be used as a basis for various special equipment and had the ability to install additional equipment on the cargo area. In the case of the D-110 project, such additional equipment was supposed to be a launcher with a set of auxiliary systems.

The proposed tracked chassis was equipped with a 710 hp V-46-4 diesel engine. The engine and transmission units were located in the front of the car, next to the front cab. The chassis of the vehicle was created on the basis of the units of the T-64 tank, but had a different design. On each side there were seven road wheels with individual torsion bar suspension. The driving wheels were placed in the front of the hull, the guides were in the stern. The ability to transport cargo or special equipment weighing up to 12 tons was provided.

When reworking according to the D-110 project, the cargo area of the "Object 429" was supposed to receive a support device with a missile launcher, as well as some other equipment necessary to perform certain work. The location of the launcher was such that, in the transport position, the head of the rocket was located directly above the cockpit. The D-110 and D-110K machines did not differ in the composition of the special equipment.

Both variants of the self-propelled launcher had to use the same missile. The main element of the D-200 "Onega" complex was to be a solid-propellant rocket 3M1. In accordance with the terms of reference, this product should have been built according to a single-stage scheme and equipped with a solid fuel engine. It was also necessary to provide for the use of control systems that increase the accuracy of hitting the target.

The 3M1 rocket received a cylindrical body with a variable diameter. To accommodate all the required units, the rocket head section, equipped with a conical fairing, had a slightly larger diameter in comparison with the tail section. The tail section had two sets of X-shaped planes. The front planes, shifted to the center of the product, had a trapezoidal shape with a significant sweep. Tail rudders were smaller and different leading edge angles. The total length of the rocket reached 9.376 m, the body diameter was 540 and 528 mm at the head and tail, respectively. The wingspan is less than 1.3 m. The launch weight of the rocket, according to various sources, is from 2.5 to 3 tons.

It was proposed to place a high-explosive fragmentation or special warhead weighing up to 500 kg at the head of the Onega missile system. The development of a nuclear warhead designed specifically for use with a promising missile has been under way since March 1958.

Most of the rocket body was given over to accommodate a solid propellant engine. Using the available supply of solid fuel, the rocket had to pass the active section of the trajectory. At a certain stage in the development of the rocket, the possibility of using a thrust cutoff was considered, but later on it was abandoned. Range guidance was planned to be carried out without the use of adjusting the engine parameters, only through the appropriate algorithms for the control system.

In the instrument compartment of the 3M1 rocket, the devices of the inertial control system were to be located. Their task was to track the position of the rocket with the development of commands for the steering machines. With the help of aerodynamic rudders, the rocket could remain on the required trajectory. Range guidance was proposed to be carried out on the so-called. single-coordinate method. At the same time, the equipment had to withstand the rocket on a given trajectory during the entire active phase of the flight without the possibility of turning off the engine. The use of such control systems made it possible to fire at a distance of up to 70 km.

For transportation of missiles 3M1 "Omega" it was proposed to use a semitrailer 2U663 with attachments for two products. The transporter was to be towed by a ZIL-157V tractor. In addition, a crane was to participate in the preparation of self-propelled launchers for combat work.

The development of the D-200 "Onega" project was completed in 1959, after which the enterprises participating in the development manufactured the required products and presented them for testing. By the end of the 59th, part of the necessary equipment and devices, as well as prototype missiles, were delivered to the Kapustin Yar test site. In December, launch tests of missiles from a stationary version of the launcher began. 16 missiles were used, which showed satisfactory performance. At the same time, it was not without claims.

From the memoirs of the project participants, we know about one accident that occurred during the throw tests. At the request of the aerodynamics and ballistics specialists of OKB-9, additional pyrotechnic tracers were installed on the experimental missiles. During preparation for the next test launch, two employees of the design bureau screwed the necessary tracers into the corresponding mountings. At the same time, other pre-launch procedures were carried out on the control panel. The control panel operator, forgetting about work on the rocket, applied voltage, which caused the tracers to catch fire. The specialists who installed the tracers received burns, the other participants in the work escaped with a slight fright. Fortunately, such situations did not recur anymore, and only the minimum required number of people was from now on next to the experimental products during the preparation.

In the spring of 1960, the Kapustin Yar test site became the site for a new stage of testing, during which it was planned to test the interaction of missiles with launchers, as well as to determine the real characteristics of weapons. These tests began with trips of the D-110 and D-110K launchers along the tracks of the range, after which it was planned to start test firing using experimental missiles.

It is interesting that tests of rocket systems in full force started after the appearance of the order to close the project. According to the results of the throw tests, during which some problems of the promising rocket were identified, the chief designer F. F. Petrov made the appropriate conclusions. Due to the presence of shortcomings, the elimination of which turned out to be too difficult a task, the chief designer came up with an initiative to terminate work on the Onega theme. He managed to convince the leadership of the industry, as a result of which on February 5, 1960, by a resolution of the Council of Ministers, the development of the project was stopped.


Monument rocket MR-12, Obninsk. Photo Nn-dom.ru

Nevertheless, a few weeks after the appearance of this document, the completed launchers were delivered to the test site in order to collect the necessary data. Similar checks were carried out until 1961, inclusive, including in the interests of new promising projects. In particular, the last test launches were carried out with full use of the control system, which is responsible for the flight to the specified range. It was not possible to achieve particular success in these tests, however, the necessary data was collected on controlling the flight range without changing the parameters of the engine or cutting off its thrust. In the future, the experience gained was used in some new projects.

At the end of 1959, the development of a new version of the 3M1 rocket began, which, unlike the base product, still managed to reach operation. In accordance with the new order, it was required to make a rocket for meteorological research, capable of rising to an altitude of 120 km. The project received the working designation D-75 and the official MP-12. During the first few years, the D-75 project was dealt with by OKB-9. In 1963, the rocket theme was taken away from the design bureau of plant No. 9, which is why the MP-12 project was transferred to the Institute of Applied Geophysics. The Petropavlovsk Heavy Machine Building Plant and NPO Typhoon were also involved in the project.

The D-75 / MR-12 product with a launch weight of more than 1.6 tons received a modified hull with one set of tail fins. It could rise to a height of 180 km and deliver there the necessary research equipment weighing up to 50 kg. Interestingly, in the early sixties, the development of technology made it possible to equip the rocket with only one measuring device. By the beginning of the nineties, similar devices appeared with 10-15 different devices. In addition, there were modifications of the warhead with a salvage container for delivering samples to the ground. As the project developed, the payload mass was increased to 100 kg. Due to the absence of the need to defeat targets, the missile lost its control system. Instead, it was proposed to carry out stabilization during flight strictly upward by means of rotation around the longitudinal axis due to the angle of installation of the planes.

The operation of the MR-12 meteorological rockets began in 1961. For the first time they were used in the course of monitoring the progress of nuclear weapons tests. Subsequently, several launch complexes were deployed, including two on research vessels. Simultaneously with the continued operation of the MR-12 missiles, new versions of such products were developed. During the operation of the missiles of the family, more than 1200 launches of the MR-12, MR-20 and MR-25 products were carried out. In addition, more than a hundred missiles delivered payloads to an altitude of over 200 km.

The goal of the project with the code "Onega" was to create a promising tactical missile system with a guided ballistic missile capable of attacking targets at ranges of up to 70 km. Already in the course of the first tests, it was found that the developed project, for one reason or another, does not meet the requirements. Due to the presence of serious shortcomings, the D-200 project was closed at the initiative of the chief designer. Nevertheless, the experience and developments that appeared thanks to the Onega project were used to create new systems. The most notable result of this experience was the emergence of one of the most successful domestic meteorological rockets. In addition, individual developments for the D-200 project were also used to create new missile systems for the army. Thus, the Ladoga and Onega missile systems could not reach operation in the troops, but they contributed to the emergence and development of other systems of various classes.

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