The Tkachev AO-46 assault rifle, an experimental copy of which was released in 1969, is almost the only development that was created not by order of the USSR Government, union ministries and departments, but on the personal initiative of the designer - gunsmith, employee of the Central Research Institute of Precision Engineering Tkachev P. A.
It is a lightweight small-sized machine gun of a standard caliber of 5, 45 mm, the ammunition for which was supposed to be a unified shot of 5, 45 x 39 mm, which had a small impulse. The developed model received the letter and digital designation AO-46.
It was intended to be used as a personal weapon by those subunits and units whose servicemen are not directly involved in fire contact with the enemy. The main requirements for this type of weapon are the immediate start of fire contact when targets are found at a distance of 200 meters in the presence of appropriate portable dimensions and light weight. Also, the factor of quick bringing into position for shooting and ease of carrying weapons are important here.
Technical solutions applied by Tkachev
In the course of preliminary calculations and the creation of the project, the scientist determined that when the barrel of the machine was shortened from 415 mm to 210 mm, the initial speed of the shot was reduced by only 16%. This is numerically expressed as a decrease in the initial speed from 880 to 735 m / s. Such high-speed indicators more than cover the required range of target destruction, allow counting on an effective range of effective fire more than sufficient for this type of weapon. But with automatic fire from short-barreled systems, the unmasking feature is the flame emerging from the muzzle, and the excessive pressure on the barrel walls injures the submachine gunner's hearing organs. These disadvantages were taken into account when creating a unique barrel attachment with a volumetric expansion chamber for the removal of powder gases. To give simplicity to the design of the weapon, the powder gases were removed directly from the barrel attachment, which also played the role of a flame arrester.
Another ingenious engineering move was the placement of the magazine in the grip of the machine. To make the product smaller, the ammunition is located at a large angle, but the action of mechanical forces in this case interferes with the supply of a large number of cartridges. Reliability using this technical solution was achieved with an optimal magazine capacity of 15 rounds.
The work of parts and mechanisms of the machine
The barrel can be closed in a rigid manner, using a rotating bolt system with two tides. The Tkachev AO-46 assault rifle uses a USM with a long drummer, which is designed to conduct both single shots and burst fire. The stroke length of the striker itself provides the necessary time for the mobile parts of the structure to be in the frontal position, which reduced the dispersion ellipse of ammunition when fired and increased the rate of fire of the product.
A three-position flag - a safety switch for the transfer of fire is located above the trigger guard on the right side.
The sight is represented by a front sight and two-position as a whole.
Metal shoulder rest, folding, located on the upper plane of the product, secured with a stopper in the stowed position
The hands of the submachine gunner are protected from burns when firing with wooden linings.
The Tkachev AO-46 assault rifle for its time was a constructive novelty, which with honor passed all test tests, including in extreme conditions. The reasons for the refusal to launch the product in the series are unknown. However, in 1973, during the implementation of a program called "Modern", the main goal of which was to adopt oversized weapons with the SA, the government commission chose the AKS-74U produced by the Kalashnikov bureau.
The performance data of the Tkachev AO-46 assault rifle
Product caliber - 5.45 mm
Ammunition - 5.45 × 39 mm
Weight without magazine, kg 1, 95
Length in position for shooting with a shoulder rest, mm 655
Length in the stowed position, mm 458
Barrel length, mm 245
Rate of fire, shots / min 700
Muzzle velocity, m / s 715
Range (sighting), m 200.