Forgotten victory. How Stalin and Beria saved the USSR from the threat of nuclear war

Forgotten victory. How Stalin and Beria saved the USSR from the threat of nuclear war
Forgotten victory. How Stalin and Beria saved the USSR from the threat of nuclear war
Anonim

Having declared a "cold war" to us in 1946-1947, the West was preparing for massive raids on Russian cities. The masters of the West did not forgive the Russians for the victory over Hitler. The Westerners planned to finish off the Soviet (Russian) civilization, to establish their absolute power over the entire planet.

The masters of the West have already tested massive (carpet) bombing raids in Germany and Japan. Nuclear weapons were also tested on the Japanese. So, during the whole war London lost 600 acres of land from German bombing, and Dresden lost 1600 acres in one night (!). The Dresden bombings in two days killed about 130 thousand people. For comparison: the atomic bombing of Nagasaki killed 60-80 thousand people.

These the bombings of Germany and Japan were demonstrative, psychological. They had no particular military significance. Most of the victims of the carpet bombing were civilians, old people, women and children. Westerners deliberately killed hundreds of thousands of innocent people. Air strikes could not weaken the German army, the military industry, since the factories were hidden under the ground and stone. The masters of the West wanted to intimidate Moscow, to show the Russians what would happen to their cities if Russia dared to resist the Westernizers.

From the beginning of 1945, when the defeat of the Third Reich was evident, the decision to destroy German cities and massacre Germans was made by British Prime Minister Winston Churchill. By March 1945, Germany's main cities were in ruins. Then the Anglo-American leadership draws up a new list of targets, choosing the least protected cities that can be bombed with almost impunity. It is clear that these same cities had no military significance, they were not covered by anti-aircraft artillery and fighter aircraft. It was an aviation terror: they wanted to turn Germany into ruins, psychologically break the Germans. Destroy the main cultural and historical centers of Germany. Anglo-American aircraft swept off the face of the earth small German cities such as Würzburg and Ellingen, Aachen and Münster. The Anglo-Saxons burned out the cultural and historical basis of Germany: centers of culture, architecture, history, religion and university education. In the future, the Germans were to lose their military spirit, become slaves of the "new world order" led by Britain and the United States. Therefore, the German nation was broken, they gave it a terrible bloodletting.

The bombing of Japan also operated in the same direction, such as the burning of Tokyo in February 1945 and the atomic strike on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August 1945. On the one hand, the Westerners practiced the methods of "contactless" warfare, when the enemy was beaten with the help of the naval and air fleets, avoiding a direct collision. On the other side, The West showed its technological and military power to the whole world by intimidating the planet. Air terror destroyed, first of all, not the military, industrial potential, but the spirit of the nation, the military cult, the will to fight. The millennial nation of samurai warriors was destroyed. Everyone should be afraid of the masters of the West, everyone should become slaves-consumers, "two-legged weapons", no more knights, warriors and samurai. Only a herd of slaves, commoners, cowardly and easily controlled. And the masters-gentlemen, the "chosen ones."

In fact, the Germans and the Japanese were the cannon fodder of the masters of London and Washington.They did their job - unleashed a world war, plundered and destroyed a significant part of the planet. Now the true instigators of the world war were cold-bloodedly eliminating and crushing Germany and Japan. The lands, markets, wealth, gold they seized were appropriated. The cult of warriors was destroyed, since there was no place for it in the future world of the domination of the "golden calf". Germany and Japan were turned into their colonies, obedient servants.

Forgotten victory. How Stalin and Beria saved the USSR from the threat of nuclear war

Atomic clouds over Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Source:

However, not all of the goals of the World War were realized. Failed to destroy Russia. Soviet (Russian) civilization was also based on a big idea, it was an ideocracy, her ideals were opposite to the world of the "golden calf" - the dollar. The Russian world and the Russian people also had a thousand-year military tradition. The Soviet project created a society for creation and service. Soviet civilization was a supercivilization of the future - a world of creators and creators, scientists and designers, teachers and doctors, professors and engineers, warriors, pilots and cosmonauts. The world has received an alternative to the Western world order - a global slave-owning civilization, a society of masters of slave-consumers.

The masters of Britain and the United States, having unleashed a world war with the hands of Germany, Italy and Japan, counted on the destruction of Russia. The wealth of the vast Russian land was to be obtained by the Westernizers. But we resisted, won and even became even stronger. The Soviet Union was tempered in the flames of the world war and became a political, military and economic superpower. Stalin staged a Russian revenge - we avenged the defeat in the First World War and in the war with Japan in 1904-1905. Soviet foreign policy became Russian imperial. The masters of the West were not at all happy with the fact that the victorious Russian divisions occupied Eastern and Central Europe, were stationed in Korea and China. That the Russians returned the Baltic states, Königsberg is part of the ancient Prussia-Porussia, the Russian land, Germanized by the Westernizers. That the Russians took the Kuril Islands and South Sakhalin from the Japanese. That the Soviet Union did not go into debt, into financial bondage to the West, recovered on its own and at such a fast pace that it amazed the whole world.

Therefore, the USSR had not yet had time to mourn their fallen heroes and civilians who became victims of the Nazis, and the West had already unleashed the "cold" Third World War. Washington demanded that we cede the Kuril Islands. The Americans put forward a plan according to which the Soviet industry, especially the nuclear industry, would come under US control. America was preparing to bomb Russian cities.

In addition, the Americans seized German plans for airstrikes against the USSR. In the summer of 1944, the German Minister of Armaments A. Speer drew up such a plan. He proposed making the Soviet power industry the main target of the bombing. In contrast to Western Europe, where the basis of the energy industry, which was created slowly, consistently on the basis of small and medium-sized stations, was built in the USSR in record time and over vast areas, therefore large stations became the basis of the Soviet electric power industry. Speer proposed to destroy power plants, from the destruction of huge dams a chain reaction began, a catastrophe of entire regions, industrial areas. Thus, a blow to the stations in the upper Volga river paralyzed the Moscow industrial region. In addition, in order to finally cripple the economy of the USSR, blows had to be delivered to the fuel industry, railways and bridges.

True, the Third Reich in 1944 could no longer carry out this plan. Germany, having relied on the "lightning war" and lost it, no longer had time to build aircraft and missiles for long-range strikes, although feverishly tried to do so. But the German plans for strikes against the USSR were carefully studied in America.

The first stage in the preparation of an air-nuclear war against the USSR

Since 1946, the Americans have been deploying B-29 "super-fortresses" to Western Europe, which were used for massive bombing of the Japanese Empire.It was these four-engine strategic bombers that carried out atomic strikes on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Their crews had extensive combat experience. At first, these were aircraft of the 28th group of the Strategic Air Command (SAC). The Superfortresses were based in England and West Germany. Then they were joined by the planes of the 2nd and 8th air armies.

Westerners were preparing plans for a nuclear bombing of the USSR. Already in October 1945, the "Totality" plan was presented, which provided for the use of atomic weapons. Then there were other plans for a war with the Soviet Union with the use of nuclear weapons: "Pinscher" (1946), "Broiler" (1947), "Bushwecker" (1948), "Crankshaft" (1948), "Houghmun" (1948), "Fleetwood" (English Fleetwood, 1948), "Cogwill" (1948), "Offtech" (1948), "Charioteer" (English Charioteer - " Charioteer ", 1948)," Dropshot "(English Dropshot, 1949)," Trojan "(English Trojan, 1949).

So, according to the plan "Charioteer" in 1948, the first strike provided for the use of 133 atomic charges against 70 targets. The targets were Russian cities. But the Soviet army was not completely destroyed by this blow, therefore, during the second two-year phase of the war, it was planned to drop another 200 nuclear bombs and 250 thousand tons of conventional charges on the USSR. Strategic bombers were to play the main role in the war. The plan was to start the war on April 1, 1949. However, analysts calculated that the Russians would still reach the English Channel in half a year, occupy Western Europe and the Middle East, destroying the US long-range aviation bases there.

Then the Americans developed the "Dropshot" - "Surprise Strike" plan. This plan involved a massive nuclear bombing of the Soviet Union - 300 nuclear strikes. Numerous atomic attacks on the main political and industrial centers of Russia should have killed tens of millions of people. After the victory, the Westernizers planned to divide the USSR into "sovereign Russia", Ukraine, Belarus, Cossackia, the Republic of Idel-Ural (Idel is the Volga), and Central Asian "states". That is, in fact, the Americans planned to do what the traitors led by Gorbachev and Yeltsin would do in the 1990s.

However, the plans for the nuclear bombing of the USSR and the dismemberment of the defeated Russia were not implemented, since the Soviet leadership, headed by Stalin, found something to respond to the enemy. Unexpectedly for the West, Moscow built a powerful jet fighter aircraft, which was superior to Western counterparts. The magnificent cannon fighters MiG-15 and MiG-17 took to the sky. When, in 1950, the American analytical group of General D. Hell simulated the strike of 233 strategic bombers (32 nuclear strikes, not counting conventional bombs) on targets in the Black Sea region, the result was disastrous. It was assumed that 24 atomic bombs would be targeted, 3 would fall far, 3 would be lost in downed vehicles and 2 would not be able to use. This provided a 70% chance of completing the task. However, at the same time, 35 cars shot down enemy aircraft, 2 - anti-aircraft guns, 5 - suffered an accident or were sold by their own, and another 85 cars received such serious damage that they could no longer climb into the sky. That is, the losses amounted to 55% of the vehicles, excluding the escort fighters. Psychological studies have shown that such high losses will lead to loss of morale of personnel, demoralization and pilots will refuse to fly. Thus, the new generation of jet fighters ended the era of "flying fortresses".

The second invincible weapon of Russia, which stopped the enemy's "flying fortresses" with atomic weapons, were armored divisions. The USA knew that even with huge damage from atomic strikes, Russian tanks would reach the English Channel. That the Russians would take over all of Europe in case of war. Therefore, the Americans wanted to create a nuclear arsenal that would be guaranteed to destroy Russia. And time passed, and in the USSR they did not sleep, worked, invented and created.

Thus, the Stalinist leadership turned out to be wiser than the Americans.If the USA relied on long-range aviation and aircraft carriers, then Moscow has chosen intercontinental ballistic missiles as a priority. It was significantly cheaper and more efficient. This was the personal merit of Stalin and Beria. It was these two people who are hated in the West, and inside Russia - Westernizers and liberals who want to be a part of the Western world, who saved the country and people from death. Stalin and Beria turned the USSR into a rocket-space and nuclear power.

Back in 1944, Sergei Korolev, fulfilling the will of the Soviet leader, worked on the Big Rocket project. A new impetus for this work was the German rocket technology, some of which were captured by the Russians (the other part - by the Americans, together with the creator of the V-2 rocket, designer Werner von Braun). Korolev managed in 1948 to reproduce the German ballistic missile "V-2", which received our "stuffing" and the RD-100 engine designed by V. Glushko (the future creator of the "Energia-Buran" system. The missile received the name "R-1" and beat by 270 km. With this rocket began an amazing take-off of our missilemen. In 1951, they adopted the R-2 rocket, which hit 550 km. By the fall of 1953, the R-5 with a flight range of 1200 kilometers was to be presented for test tests, and by the summer of 1955 it was planned to test the R-12 with a range of 1,500 kilometers. As a result, the USSR became the world leader in the field of ballistic missiles. Stalin, having died in 1953, no longer saw the continuation of work and the creation of an arsenal of missiles capable of covering the entire territory of America and any a potential adversary, but it was he who ensured the security of the Soviet people.

A huge role in the success of the atomic and missile program was played by Lavrenty Pavlovich Beria, who was slandered (for which they hate Beria), creating a myth about a maniac murderer, Stalin's henchman to the executioner. Beria oversaw three leading projects: the Kometa cruise missile, the Berkut air defense system (guided missiles) and intercontinental missiles. It was Beria who immediately supported the missiles, although they had strong opponents both among aircraft designers and among the generals. In particular, Marshal of Artillery Yakovlev spoke out sharply against the missiles. However, with Beria, rocketry in the USSR quickly went uphill. He actually directed it, although later they tried to forget about it.

Beria, among other managers, even highly qualified (others were not kept in Stalin's team), was always distinguished by a craving for new things, an interest in people, and technical training. He was also distinguished by his enormous capacity for work and the ability to select the right people, to create "super teams". Therefore, it was Beria who worked in the field of atomic weapons, rocketry, electronic computers (computers), radar and other novelties. From the second half of the 1940s and early 1950s, Beria simultaneously supervised the First Main Directorate (PGU) under the leadership of Boris Vannikov, the Second Main Directorate (VSU), headed by Pyotr Antropov, which dealt with the production and processing of uranium raw materials into concentrate. carried out production and technical management of uranium mining from deposits developed in Europe, and control of geological exploration for uranium and thorium, the Third Main Directorate (TSU) for guided missiles and air defense systems, headed by Vasily Ryabikov. And that was not all that Lavrenty Pavlovich knew in the arms industry.

In 1947, the development of an unmanned aerial missile system "Kometa" with nuclear combat equipment began (even before nuclear weapons were created). A conventional warhead was also envisaged. The development along with the Berkut system was carried out by a special design bureau KB-1 under the supervision of a scientist and designer in the field of radio engineering Pavel Kuksenko and Sergo Beria (son of Lavrentiy Pavlovich). Tu-4 and Tu-16 bombers were used as carriers. In 1952, Beria, together with his son, tested the "Comet" on the Black Sea. It was successful. The cruise missile pierced the decommissioned cruiser.

However, the Comet was an offensive weapon. And for the Union it was vital to create a defensive means. This was supposed to be the air defense system protecting the capital from American "fortresses". Work on the Berkut air defense system began in 1950. This system became the ancestor of all subsequent air defense systems of the USSR, and Lavrenty Beria became the godfather of the Soviet air defense.

The work proceeded quickly and with tremendous tension, the Kremlin knew about the threat of a nuclear strike, and an atomic war of the West against the USSR would begin with a strike on Moscow. To ensure the development, design and manufacture of equipment included in the air defense complex of the "Berkut" system, on February 3, 1951, the Council of Ministers established the Third Main Directorate (TSU) under the Council of Ministers of the USSR. It was headed by Ryabikov (former Deputy People's Commissar, and later - First Deputy Minister of Armaments). TSU was directly subordinate to the Special Committee of Beria. Pavel Kuksenko and Sergo Beria had the status of chief designers, the head of the design bureau was Hero of Socialist Labor Amo Elyan.

In 1951, testing of prototypes began, in November 1952, the first launch of the B-300 anti-aircraft guided missile against an air target took place. On April 26, 1953, a remotely controlled Tu-4 bomber was shot down, which was used as a target. Soon the first stage of the radio-controlled aircraft launch program was completed.

Thus, the USSR won the first stage (and the most dangerous) of the threat of an air-nuclear war. The masters of the West did not dare to start an atomic war.

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