Black Panther Armor

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Black Panther Armor
Black Panther Armor

For the first decade of the XXI century. there are so few new types of main tanks (OT) in the world that they can be counted on the fingers of one hand. In most of the leading countries in the field of tank building, only the modernization of previously released samples is carried out. So, for example, in the USA, it will soon be 10 years since the M1A1 Abrams are being modernized to the level of M1A2 SEP V2 (this is the 9th modernization of the Abrams), in Germany the modernization of the Leopard 2 OT continues, now they have already reached the level of Leopard 2A7 + and Leopard Revolution (modernization of the Leopard 2 modifications - Leopard 2A6 and Leopard 2A4, respectively). Fundamentally new machines were created, oddly enough, not in the West, but in the East, in particular in Russia, Japan, Turkey and South Korea.

In Russia, it was created, built, tested, brought after tests and tested again, which became famous, but covered with a veil of secrecy "object 195", But, thanks to the will of some military leaders, it did not come to the adoption of this super tank, at least in Russia … Why "anyway"? Yes, it just might happen that sane commanders of some other country will request such vehicles to arm their army, as was the case recently with the BMPT - Russia refused to accept it for service, and Kazakhstan bought itself a batch of Terminators, and not only them.

Since the beginning of 2000, new types of tanks have appeared in three more countries that have never been quoted in the lists of advanced tank builders. Its firstborn in the family of main tanks appeared in Turkey - this is OT Aitay, a full-scale model of which was demonstrated at the IDEF-2011 arms exhibition held in Istanbul in 2011. But it is too early to talk about this tank, although this event can be considered important from the point of view of the appearance of another tank-producing country on the world list.


The first demonstration of a prototype tank "Black Panther" XK2 by ADD (developer) and Hyundai Rotem (manufacturer). March 2007

In the Land of the Rising Sun - Japan, the main tank of the Tour 10 was created and adopted. In the near future, these machines will replace the Japanese tank fleet, consisting of OT Tour 90.

Who was able to surprise the international mainstream tank community was South Korea. In this country, an OT was created, tested and adopted, which received the designation K2 Black Panther ("Black Panther"). Korean designers were able to implement in this machine all the most modern achievements, providing it with a kind of world leadership in the use of the latest technologies.

For example, it was reported that the fire control system (FCS) OT K2 "Black Panther" is capable of automatically detecting, identifying, tracking and firing at targets without the participation of the operator. The hydropneumatic suspension of the tank provides the tank not only with variable ground clearance, leveling of side roll or changing the angle of the longitudinal axis of the vehicle, but also, thanks to the new ISU system, automatic individual control of the suspension units of each road roller is provided, which eliminates vibration when driving on rough terrain or on, the so-called "comb". Naturally, as it has already become fashionable in tank building, the designers have equipped the Black Panther with all modern electronic systems, such as a GPS navigator, data transmission and identification systems "friend or foe", on-board information management system (BIUS), active and passive protection systems, Radar and many other know-how. Today we will tell our readers about the "features of modern South Korean tank building" - about the new main tank K2 Black Panther.


Development of a new South Korean tank began in 1995. The ROC theme was named XK2 Black Panther. The development of a new combat vehicle was carried out by the South Korean Agency for Defense Development (ADD) and Rotem (a division of Hyundai Motors, which is well known in Russia and in the world for its Solaris, Sonata and Santa Fe vehicles). According to the developers, only South Korean design solutions and developments were used in the project, which made it possible not to buy licenses from foreign manufacturers. The development, construction of prototypes, testing and fine-tuning of the new tank cost the Korean budget $ 230 million and was carried out over 11 years, from 1995 to 2006, which is considered the year of the start of serial production.

The goal of developing a new vehicle was to create a tank capable of withstanding modern main tanks in service with North Korea and China, ensuring their significant superiority in terms of their characteristics in the near future. Organizationally, the K2 Black Panther in the South Korean army should replace the outdated M48A5K Patton medium tanks, made in the United States, and supplement the K1 main tanks of its own design in service with South Korea. Full-scale mass production of the OT K2 Black Panther was planned to begin in 2011, but, in all likelihood, this event will occur a little later.

Some sources have already rushed to announce the "Black Panther", allegedly listed in the Guinness Book of Records, as the most expensive tank in the world, costing more than 8.5 million USD per unit. Nevertheless, if you recall the contract for the supply by Germany to Greece of Leopard 2A6 Hell (Hellenic) tanks, which is a Greek version of the German OT Leopard 2A6, then, in accordance with it, the taxpayers of Hellas paid 10 million euros per vehicle. Could it be that there is a clue to the reasons for the economic collapse of Greece?

In the context of the ROC, requirements for the development of a new tank were laid down such as achieving superiority over the main tanks in service with the armies of North Korea and China, and these are the Soviet-made T-55 and T-62 and the Chinese-made T-96 and T-99. Another important requirement was the creation of a new tank using only domestic technologies. This approach will allow in the future not only to maintain national security at the proper level, but also to enter the international arms market without fear of problems with foreign states related to licensing issues. In this regard, ADD has been developing a new machine in parallel with the development of the most modern proprietary technologies.


Korean main tank K2 Black Panther, frontal view

In the process of creating the "Black Panther", two main projects were worked out: one provided for the installation of an inhabited two-man tower, and the second - the installation of an uninhabited tower. The last option was rejected. In addition, the designers planned to install an experimental 140-mm smoothbore gun developed by the German company Rheinmetall as the main armament of the OT K2 tank, but this also had to be abandoned. One of the reasons was the requirement to use only its own technologies as much as possible, and the other was the refusal of the German company to further develop this gun. According to the company's gunsmiths, a modern smooth-bore 120-mm gun with a barrel length of 55 calibers will be more than enough to provide a solution to all problems in the fight against armored targets in the foreseeable future. The gun for the OT K2 was based on the German 120-mm Rheinmetall L55 cannon, which was later reconfigured to use more powerful ammunition. The development and production of the 120 / L55 cannon for the Black Panther OT is carried out by World Industries Ace, and the ammunition for it was developed and manufactured by Poongsan.

The first South Korean main tank, the K2 Black Panther, was released in March 2007. The first of three vehicles launched at Hyundai Corp. rolled off the assembly line. in Changwon city. Some representatives of the South Korean media, admitted to the plant in honor of this event, then rushed to mistakenly (or perhaps with malicious intent) "trumpet" that the K2 tank was equipped with a CN120 / L52 type cannon, the same as on the French Leclerc main tank. However, our Russian media make such mistakes much more often.

Currently, the tank fleet of the Republic of Korea is about 2,300 vehicles, many of which are planned to be replaced with the main K2 Black Panther and K1A1 tanks. Some sources reported that the South Korean government planned to order at least 397 Black Panther units after deploying full-scale mass production in 2011. However, in March 2011, the South Korean Defense Ministry's Procurement Authority (DAPA) announced that mass production of K2 Black Panther tanks, expected in 2012, will not occur earlier than in 2013 due to technical problems that were identified in the engine and transmission of the vehicle.

In January 2012, The Korea Times reported that the serial production of the main K2 Black Panther tanks was postponed and would not even begin in 2014. This is the third delay in the start of production of a new generation South Korean tank since development. This time, the postponement of the start of mass production is associated with the decision to conduct additional tests of the new tank at the beginning of 2014.


View of the aft part of the tank

The reason is still the same - engine problems. It still does not suit the South Korean military in terms of reliability and has a small overhaul life.

At the same time, there is no question of purchasing foreign equipment or units. All problems will be solved only on our own and on the basis of our own technologies. A worthy example to follow!

In the future, with the start of serial production, in addition to the supply of the main K2 tanks to the army of the Republic of Korea, they will also be offered for export. Turkey has already successfully negotiated the import or licensed production of some systems, components and assemblies of the South Korean tank. In July 2008, the South Korean company Rotem and the Turkish Otokar signed a $ 540 million contract for technological and design assistance, as well as the transfer of some technologies for the production of the main K2 tank to Turkey. These technologies were used to create a new Turkish main tank, called the MTP Altay. A prototype full-scale model of this tank was demonstrated at the IDEF exhibition held in Turkey in 2011. Despite the use of many subsystems, components and assemblies with OT K2 Black Panther in the new Turkish vehicle, such as armor protection, main weapons and others, the tanks have different characteristics and differ in appearance.


The layout of the turret of the Black Panther tank, elements of the DZ are marked in brown


The main tank K2 Black Panther has a classic layout with a control compartment in the bow of the vehicle, a fighting compartment in the center and an engine compartment in the rear. The tank's crew consists of three people and includes the tank commander, gunner and driver. The control compartment is located in the frontal part of the hull to the left along the course of the tank. The upper frontal part of the hull, which has a large angle of inclination to the normal, is equipped with a driver's hatch, which is closed by a sliding cover, into which prism observation devices are mounted.


The layout of the elements of the power plant and suspension of the K2 tank

The fighting compartment is located in the center of the vehicle hull in a two-seat rotating turret. On the left in the direction of the vehicle is the gunner's workplace, on the right - the tank commander. Each of them has a personal hatch in the roof of the tower, which is closed by an armored cover. When opening, the lid swings back along the course of the tank, and locks in an almost vertical position, In the aft part of the tank there is an engine-transmission compartment, where the power plant is located, and the systems that serve it.


Despite its significant weight - 55 tons, OT K2 can move at a maximum speed on the highway up to 70 km / h, and off-road - at a speed of up to 52 km / h. The car can accelerate from 0 to 32 km / h in just 7 seconds.

The high mobility of the machine is provided by a powerful power plant with an automatic transmission and a modern chassis design with a unique individual semi-active hydropneumatic ISU (ln-arm Suspension Unit) suspension and an automatic track tensioning system. Each support roller of such a suspension is equipped with an individual control system, which allows the tank to "crouch", "bend", "lie down", bend in any direction, etc. Such "gymnastic exercises" provide the ability for the tank to lower its silhouette, if necessary, or, conversely, at maximum "growth" to increase the cross-country ability of the machine. Lowering the front or aft part allows you to increase the maximum angles of depression or elevation of the gun. In general, the OT K2 hydropneumatic suspension provides a change in the vehicle's ground clearance in the range from 150 to 550 mm.


Demonstration of the capabilities of the hydropneumatic suspension

The tank's suspension device itself, as well as the presence of special rubber pads on the track tracks (like on the T-80), significantly reduces vibrations when driving over rough terrain or on paved roads.

The Black Panther tank uses a 12-cylinder four-stroke diesel engine developed and manufactured by Doosan Infracore, which develops a power of 1,500 horsepower (1100 kW) and provides a specific power of 27.3 hp / t. The German MTU-890 engine was taken as a prototype for creating a Korean diesel engine. It was also temporarily used in the initial period of testing the first prototypes of the OT XK2, while the Korean engine was not yet ready. The diesel engine, coupled with a fully automatic transmission designed and manufactured by the Korean company S&T Dynamics, forms the PowerPack power unit. The automatic transmission has 5 forward gears and 3 reverse gears. As noted above, technical malfunctions in the operation of the power plant, discovered during the tests of the Black Panther OT, did not allow the launch of large-scale serial production of the tank either in 2011 or in 2012.

Thanks to the relatively compact design of the PowerPack power plant, the designers were able to equip the new K2 tank with an auxiliary gas turbine power unit (BCA) Samsung Techwin, installed in the remaining space of the engine compartment. BCA engine power is 100 hp. (75 kW). It provides power to all onboard systems when the main engine of the tank is off, saves fuel and minimizes the thermal and acoustic signatures of the tank.

In terms of overcoming obstacles, OT K2 Black Panther is able to climb a 60% slope or overcome a vertical wall with a height of 1.3 m driving the tank is a manhole pipe installed on the hatch of the tank commander. She also serves the vehicle commander as a conning tower when moving through water obstacles. The installation of a set of equipment takes about 30 minutes. As noted in the advertising materials of the manufacturing company, when moving under water, the tank tower remains sealed, but the tank chassis can take up to 440 liters of water. As the designers emphasize, this is even necessary in order to reduce the buoyancy created by the displacement volume of the vehicle and to maintain sufficient traction of the tracks with the ground.

After overcoming the water obstacle and dismantling the equipment for underwater driving, the tank can immediately enter the battle.


Tank K2 Black Panther with installed equipment for underwater driving


Overcoming a deep ford with the K2 Black Panther


The OT K2 Black Panther armament complex includes the main, auxiliary and secondary weapons, ammunition, an automatic loading system, a fire control system (FCS), an electric two-plane weapon stabilizer.

The main weapon on OT K2 is a 120-mm smoothbore cannon with a barrel length of 55 calibers and automatic loading. It was developed by the Korean company ADD on the basis of the German Rheinmetall cannon obtained under the license. The gun is produced in Korea by World Industries Ace Corporation.

The tank's auxiliary weapons are a 7.62 mm coaxial machine gun and a 12.7 mm KB large-caliber anti-aircraft machine gun (Korean copy of the American Browning М2НВ). Both of these machine guns have a very significant ammunition load: 12000 and 3200 rounds, respectively. Nowhere in the descriptions is there any information about whether the anti-aircraft machine gun has remote control. Judging by the photographs of the tank at the disposal of the author, the tank commander is firing from the anti-aircraft machine gun manually with the opening of the hatch cover.

Ammunition for the gun is 40 rounds. 16 of them are placed in the mechanized stowage of the automatic loader, another 24 shots are placed in special stowage in the vehicle body.

According to the developers, the automatic loader provides a rate of fire of 15 rounds per minute, or one shot per four seconds, regardless of the elevation angle of the gun. As reported in some sources, the design of the OT K2 Black Panther autoloader was to some extent borrowed from the Leclerc main tank autoloader. However, despite the similarity of the designs of these two automatic loaders, the parts and assemblies of these automated systems are not interchangeable.

After the 16 shots placed in the automatic loader have been used up, it must be replenished manually from the stowage located in the vehicle body or from the ammunition supplied.


Firing from the cannon of the K2 Black Panther tank

For firing from the OT K2 tank gun, standard 120-mm tank shots from NATO countries can be used. However, in South Korea, new ammunition was developed specifically for the gun of this tank, including shots with armor-piercing sub-caliber, cumulative and guided projectiles.

According to the developers, the new APFSDS armor-piercing projectile with a detachable pallet and a tungsten-based alloy core provides significantly higher armor penetration than the current generation of APFSDS armor-piercing projectiles with tungsten cores. This is due to the use of a new technology for heat treatment of the tungsten alloy and the so-called "self-sharpening process". In other words, when an armor barrier is penetrated, the tungsten alloy core of this projectile does not deform and collapses, and as it penetrates deep into the barrier, it sharpens, decreasing in diameter, while maintaining a huge specific pressure.

To combat unarmored or lightly armored targets, the OT K2 crew can use a round with a multipurpose cumulative action (HEAT) projectile, similar to the American M830A1 MR-T round. As noted by some foreign experts, such a projectile is effective when fighting enemy manpower, with unarmored and lightly armored vehicles, as well as with low-flying or hovering helicopters. As practice has shown, in fact, such multipurpose projectiles with a cumulative warhead are significantly inferior to high-explosive fragmentation projectiles in their effectiveness in the fight against the above targets.


Airborne radar antenna elements and smoke grenade launchers

Especially for the K2 Black Panther tank, Korean engineers developed a KSTAM round with a self-aiming warhead projectile. KSTAM - Korean Smart Top-Attack Munition (Korean "smart" ammunition, acting in the upper hemisphere) with a firing range of 2 to 8 km. This is a self-aiming projectile fired through the barrel of a tank gun along a hinged trajectory to the side where the enemy's armored vehicles can presumably be. The flight of the projectile along the trajectory is carried out by inertia, since it does not have its own engine. The flight trajectory is corrected by a four-blade stabilizer that opens after the shot. At a certain or the highest point of the trajectory, the projectile releases a parachute and begins to search for a target using the existing millimeter-wave radars and infrared and radio emission detection sensors. When a target is detected (and it can be both stationary and moving), the warhead is undermined, which forms a shock core that hits the target in the least protected upper hemisphere, i.e. by the type of domestic self-aiming elements of the MLRS "Smerch", only much less power.

The Korean KSTAM shot provides the crew with the "fire and forget" principle. Some sources note that a control channel is also provided, providing, if necessary, the ability to correct the trajectory of the projectile by the gunner-operator.

The main advantage of the KSTAM shot over other systems of guided tank weapons is the ability to defeat enemy targets from closed firing positions, which up to a certain point ensures the tank's concealment from the enemy.

The main tank K2 Black Panther is equipped with a modern fire control system (FCS), which, along with the now traditional thermal imagers, a laser rangefinder and various sensors of firing conditions, a millimeter-wave radar. The antennas of this radar are located on the cheekbones of the frontal part of the tower. The station is capable of detecting projectiles flying up to the tank, low-flying aircraft with automatic guidance of a cannon at them, as well as carrying out automatic tracking of ground targets.


Frontal view of the turret of the K2 tank. The KCPS commander's panaromatic sight, the KGPS gunner's sight, the mirror of the barrel curvature control system on its muzzle, one of the LWR laser irradiation sensors and other elements of the tank systems are clearly visible


Thanks to the highly efficient hydropneumatic suspension, it was possible to increase the accuracy of firing from the cannon on a descent over rough terrain.

The complex of means of observation and reconnaissance of targets of the OMS of the K2 tank is capable of detecting and "locking" a target at a distance of up to 9.8 km. When tracking a target, the on-board computer, based on information from sensors of firing conditions and a laser rangefinder, makes ballistic calculations taking into account the necessary corrections, which ensures high accuracy of firing from a place and on the move. The LMS of the Korean new tank works in conjunction with a modern two-plane weapon stabilizer and a descent delay system. The latter provides high accuracy of fire on the move on rough terrain. This system takes into account the oscillations of the gun barrel occurring during movement, which give a temporary discrepancy between the calculated throw angle and the axis of the barrel bore. With such a discrepancy, the system does not give a signal to fire a shot until the axis of the barrel bore coincides with the calculated throwing angle (in our country, such a system appeared for the first time in 1976 on T-64B tanks and was called the shot resolution block - BRV). In addition, the LMS of the Korean tank also uses a barrel curvature accounting system, which is a laser emitter, a mirror in the upper part on the muzzle of the barrel and a sensor on the turret above the embrasure of the gun. Depending on the bend of the barrel, the laser beam reflected by the mirror at the muzzle end of the gun will hit different parts of the sensor, which will be taken into account by the on-board computer when calculating the total correction for firing.

The gunner's and commander's sighting systems are currently using the same systems as on the Korean K1A1 tank - this is the main gunner's sight KGPS (Korean Gunner's Primary Sight) and the commander's panaromatic sight KCPS (Korean Commander's Panoramic Sight). Both sights are combined, have built-in optical, thermal imaging and laser rangefinder channels. The field of view of both scopes has independent stabilization in two planes. However, according to the developers of the tank, in the future, the sighting systems of the Black Panther tank will be significantly improved in order to provide all the advantages of the latest sensors and weapons systems used on the new vehicle.

The Black Panther OTMS provides duplicate fire control, at any time the tank commander can take control of the weapons complex. In addition, according to some unconfirmed information, on a new Korean tank in the event of an emergency, the OMS can automatically detect and track targets using communication data established with other vehicles of its unit, identify their affiliation, and also determine the need to fire at them to prevent redundancy. fire at the same target and fire at enemy targets without the participation of crew members.

In the future, it is possible to return to the idea of installing a 140-mm smooth-bore tank gun on the K2 Black Panther tank. At the same time, according to the developers, alterations of some systems of the weapons complex, including the automatic loader, will be minimal.


Korean tank cannon mask


Modular combined armor is used as passive protection on OT K2, information about which is classified. It is only reported that the frontal armor withstood the hit of the 120-mm APFSDS armor-piercing projectile fired from the same cannon as installed on the K2. True, no information is given from what range the firing was carried out.

Unlike most Western-made vehicles, the Korean new tank also has explosive reactive armor (ERA), moreover, ERA elements are also present on the turret roof, which significantly increases the vehicle's durability if ammunition is used on it, forming an impact core.

The millimeter-wave radar installed on the K2 Black Panther tank can operate as a component of the MAWS (Missile Approach Warning System) jamming system, an analogue of one of the subsystems of the Russian Shtora system. The tank's radar detects enemy guided missiles flying in the direction of the vehicle, automatically sends a signal to the crew and a command to fire VIRSS (Visual and Infrared Screening Smoke) smoke grenades in the desired direction. The aerosol cloud created by these grenades effectively blocks missile control channels in the visible optical, infrared and radar ranges.

In addition, the command to shoot smoke grenades can also pass in the case of detection by special sensors of laser irradiation of the tank (when the laser rangefinder or laser designator is operating). On the K2 tank, 4 such LWR (Laser warning receivers) sensors are installed, which, in addition to detecting laser radiation, also determine the direction from which this radiation is directed.

Also, the new Korean main tank also has a radar countermeasure system, which includes an RWR (Radar Warning Receiver) sensor and a radar jammer.

The automatic fire extinguishing system is programmed to detect and extinguish any internal fire.

The collective protection system, judging by the available information, is represented by special atmospheric sensors that notify the crew in the event that a tank is in a dangerous (contaminated) zone.


When the Korean designers created the K2 Black Panther tank, great attention was paid to such a combat property as command control.

In order to improve situational awareness in accordance with modern Western standards, the machine is equipped with an automated C4I (Command, Control, Communications, Computers and Intelligence) complex of means of command, communications and intelligence.

To accurately determine the location of the machine, there is a channel for receiving data from the GPS satellite navigation system.

The Korean K2 Black Panther tank is one of the few modern armored vehicles equipped with the IFF / SIF (Identification Friend or Foe / Selective Identification Feature), which meets the NATO standard. At the command of the gunner, the emitter located on the cannon mask sends a 38 GHz beam in the direction of the detected target, towards which the gun is aimed. If the correct signal is received in response, the fire control system automatically identifies the target as "its" object and blocks the firing chain. If the target does not respond to the identification signal, then it is identified as an "alien" object, the LMS "gives" permission to open fire.


View of the upper part of the turret and hull of the K2 tank (elements of the DZ on the hull and turret removed)

The new Korean tank is equipped with a Battle Management System similar to that used by the US Armed Forces. It is interfaced with the C4I command, communications and reconnaissance complex. The system allows you to exchange tactical information with neighboring, attached and supporting units, including with individual armored vehicles and helicopters. Information is displayed on LCD displays installed for each member of the tank's crew. The same displays are used to display information on the on-board information and control system (BIUS), which is also installed in the Black Panther tank. CIUS not only provides diagnostics and monitoring of the operation of all tank systems, but can also be used to train crew members, i.e. can work in simulator mode.

Currently, work is underway to integrate XAV unmanned wheeled reconnaissance vehicles into the combat control system of the new Korean tank. This will allow the crew of the Black Panther to conduct reconnaissance beyond the line of sight and receive reconnaissance information about the enemy without giving away their position.


Korean designers do not stand still, but constantly work, as they say, "on the image." In the coming years, they promise to present an improved model of the Black Panther tank - the K2 PIP.

The main improvements on the new modification of the tank will undergo suspension, protection and, possibly, the main weapon.

An active hydropneumatic suspension is being developed for OT K2 PIP. Its main feature is that when the vehicle is moving, special sensors scan the ground at a distance of up to 50 m in front of the tank and to the sides. These signals are processed by a special computer, which transmits control signals to the suspension, which will adjust to the terrain. Due to this, vibrations when driving over rough terrain are sharply reduced, average movement speeds and firing accuracy on the move increase, and crew fatigue is reduced.

With regard to increasing the security of the tank, Korean engineers plan to install a new generation DZ with non-explosive elements on the Black Panther. In addition, it will be equipped with an active protection system (SAZ), which will use the millimeter-wave radar already on the tank. The information that the Russian SAZ "Arena-E" will be installed on the K2 PIP tanks, most likely, does not correspond to reality. Firstly: it makes no sense to install another radar, and secondly: Koreans are unlikely to buy a Russian SAZ when introducing a rigid ideology “use only their own developments”.


View of the aft part of the K2 tank, the elements of the remote control on the hatch covers of the gunner and the vehicle commander are clearly visible, the rear view camera of the driver


Serial tank K2 Black Panther at one of the parades

In terms of increasing the firepower of the tank, it is planned to install a new gun on it. It is not yet clear what kind of system it will be. According to some reports, a return to the idea of installing a 140-mm smoothbore gun is possible. According to others, this is the installation of a 120-mm electrochemical or other cannon. Time will tell what will be delivered realistically.

In any case, Korean engineers showed the world with their own eyes that the economic "South Korean miracle" that the world saw in the early 90s. last century, it was only the beginning. Hyundai has learned how to produce high quality cars, and the whole world has already become convinced of this, it seems that soon it will show everyone that it has learned how to make high quality tanks.


Unmanned wheeled reconnaissance vehicles XAV, which in the near future will become part of the K2 Black Panther complex

The main technical characteristics of the main tank K2 Black Panther

Combat weight, t


Dimensions, m;

- length with gun forward

10, 8

- body length

7, 5

- width

3, 6

- height on the roof of the tower (with a clearance of 0.45 m)

2, 4

- clearance

Variable 0, 15-0, 55

Crew, people


Armor protection

Combined with overhead modules and DZ


- main weapon

120 mm GP L55

- auxiliary weapon

1 x 7.62mm; 1 x 127 mm machine guns

-additional weapon

2 x 6 PU smoke grenades

Ammunition, shots:

- to the 120-mm cannon

40 (of which 16 in A3)

- to 7, 62 mm machine gun


- to 12, 7-mm machine gun



-type of

4-stroke, 12-cylinder liquid-cooled diesel

-power, h.p. (kw)

1500 (1100)

- power density, hp / t

27, 2


-type of


- number of programs

5 forward, 3 back! about the course


Hydropneumatic semi-active with individual control

Power reserve, km


Maximum speed, km / h

- on the highway


- over rough terrain


- acceleration from 0 to 32 km / h, s


Overcoming obstacles:

- maximum ascent angle,%


- vertical wall, m

1, 3

- the width of the ditch to be overcome, m

2, 8

- the depth of the ford to be overcome without preparation, m

1, 2

- depth of ford to be overcome with preparation, m

4, 2

Country of origin and manufacturer

The Republic of Korea

Manufacturing company

Hyundai rotem

Approximate cost of a production car, USD million

8, 5

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