Today the Strategic Missile Forces is the main component of the strategic nuclear forces of the Russian Federation. This type of troops is armed with the unique Topol-M and Yars mobile ground-based missile systems (PGRK). Autonomous launchers of these complexes are based on a special heavy-duty wheeled chassis MZKT-79221 with a wheel arrangement of 16x16 manufactured by the Minsk Wheel Tractor Plant. Unique vehicles also require unique escort vehicles, which can be safely attributed to MIOM - Engineering Support and Camouflage Vehicle based on the MZKT-7930 Astrologer chassis with an 8x8 wheel arrangement. This vehicle was adopted by the Russian army in 2009.
The engineering support and camouflage vehicle (MIOM) for the engineering units of the Strategic Missile Forces was developed and produced by the Central Design Bureau "Titan" (Volgograd). It can perform tasks both as part of the Topol-M and Yars PGRKs, and in an independent mode. MIOM 15M69 was put into service in 2009 and since then has been supplied to the Strategic Missile Forces. It was reported that by July 2012, the engineering units of the Teikovo missile formation were fully equipped with such equipment. Then their deliveries began to the Irkutsk and Novosibirsk missile formations of the Strategic Missile Forces.
In December 2012, on the basis of the 1st state test site of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation (the Plesetsk cosmodrome), successful state tests of the modernized MIOM-M machine were carried out, information about this was contained on the official website of the Ministry of Defense. The modernization was carried out in several directions, both the nodes of the equipment itself (electrical installations, gearboxes) and the used simulation tools - inflatable models for various purposes will be transported by the machine. The first MIOM-M were delivered to the Teikovo missile formation in January-February 2013. According to Rossiyskaya Gazeta, by 2020, the Strategic Missile Forces must receive about 50 engineering support and camouflage vehicles. For the first time, MIOM-M was demonstrated to the general public within the framework of the Army-2015 forum.
Functional purpose of MIOM (MIOM-M):
• conducting engineering reconnaissance of patrol routes, as well as preparing the terrain for field positions of the PGRK;
• placement of false PGRK on the ground (inflatable models);
• camouflage of PGRK deployed on the ground;
• masking of traces left by PGRK when driving on country roads.
According to the official website of the Ministry of Defense of the Russian Federation, MIOM is designed to solve tasks such as engineering reconnaissance of combat patrol routes, as well as field positions, including assessing the bearing capacity of soil foundations. In addition, the vehicle and its calculation are able to determine the carrying capacity of road bridges using modern measurement systems. The uniqueness of the system used lies in the fact that due to the use of an angular measurement sensor, the possibility of skipping the PGRK (method of measuring the angles of inclination of beams) is determined with very high accuracy. Also, the car provides a check of the dimensions of the passability of routes and sites, especially important for wooded areas. In addition, with the help of MIOM, engineering reconnaissance of mine-explosive obstacles is carried out, the area can be demined, roads are cleared at the field position, their planning is carried out, blockages on the route of the PGRK are eliminated.
MIOM is also used to solve engineering problems of masking positions and equipment, as well as simulating targets. The calculation and capabilities of the machine make it possible to carry out measures to hide and simulate missile systems on the ground. The complex allows you to distort the traces of the movement of the PGRK after the missile divisions occupy positions on the ground, including rolling tracks to false objects and positions. Also, the capabilities of the machine make it easy to determine the slope of the terrain and the location of the units using modern navigation systems.
It should be noted that engineering reconnaissance as part of the Strategic Missile Forces existed long before the appearance of MIOM. But until recently, the technical equipment of such services was not at a high enough level. Engineering reconnaissance teams moved around in ordinary Ural trucks, while a large share of manual labor was present in the work of engineers and sappers.
For example, today in the arsenal of the engineering units of the Strategic Missile Forces there is a device called a penetrometer. This device is used to assess the bearing capacity of soils. The data obtained allow the calculation to determine: whether the soil in a given area will withstand the weight of the PGRK self-propelled launcher, whether it will be able to drive through this section, whether it will be possible to deploy the launch position here. In the old version of the equipment, the mass of the penetrometer was 23 kg. This in itself is quite a lot, moreover, the use of such a device was associated with significant physical exertion. To carry out the necessary tests on the ground, the soldier had to drive a special rod into the ground. The problem here was not only the wasteful expenditure of military personnel, but also the loss of time, which is of great value in everything that directly relates to intercontinental ballistic missiles and nuclear weapons. It is not surprising that over time, Russian designers handed over to the engineering units of the Strategic Missile Forces a specialized machine that allows soldiers to solve the tasks assigned to them much faster and more efficiently. Today, the penetrometer is housed in a special cabinet that is attached to the front of the vehicle. Now soldiers do not need to move a mechanical device weighing 23 kg. Assessment of the bearing capacity of soils is now carried out using hydraulics and automation.
The base for MIOM (index 15M69) and MIOM-M was the MZKT-7930 "Astrologer" chassis produced by the Minsk Wheel Tractor Plant, which produces a large number of heavy wheeled platforms for the needs of the Russian army, including tractors for Topol-M self-propelled launchers and Yars. The MIOM chassis has a wheel arrangement of 8x8, while the wheels of the two front axles of the machine are steerable. Presumably the heart of the car is a 12-cylinder diesel engine with a capacity of 500 hp (maximum torque of 1960 Nm). The maximum speed of MZKT-7930 according to the manufacturer's data is 70 km / h. The power and maneuverability of the vehicle should be enough to pull itself out (with the help of a winch) or a self-propelled launcher stuck on the ground.
Exercise in assessing the bearing capacity of soil, photo: www.popmech.ru
The engineering support and camouflage vehicle has a three-section structure. In the front part there is a control compartment, here is the workplace of the driver of the machine. Behind the control compartment there is a living compartment (kung) intended for personnel, which closes the entire cargo body. The distinctive features of MIOM include a high degree of autonomy. For example, at the Army-2015 forum it was noted that the car has a supply of drinking water in the volume of 367 liters. The car has not only a large fuel range - up to 750 km, but also provides life, rest, food and medical care for the crew, consisting of 8 people, for three days. By army standards, the conditions of accommodation in the kunga are quite comfortable and resemble a compartment of a passenger train. There are 4 sleeping places here, intended for alternate rest of the calculation, and a small kitchen.
The answer to the question why MIOM needs a crew of 8 people lies in the tasks solved by this machine. Firstly, the machine and its calculation check the overall cross-country ability of the terrain. For this, devices are specially located on the body of the car, which are called size simulators. In the stowed position, the simulators are folded, however, on command, the calculation can turn them at an angle of 90 degrees, which artificially increases the dimensions of the MIOM in width and height.
In the event that the simulators run into any obstacles, for example, thick branches of trees, this signals that the rocket tractor will not be able to pass here. Therefore, the calculation takes the necessary measures to widen the passage. An interesting detail is that the soldiers from the crew work in special lifting belts with insurance. This is due to the requirements of safety rules, since the height of the machine, even without imitators of dimensions, is 3, 9 meters.
Inside the box, by army standards, it is quite comfortable, photo: www.popmech.ru
Secondly, the task of the calculation includes a complex of radiation, chemical and biological reconnaissance of the area, as well as the demining of mines and explosive obstacles encountered. The car is equipped with appropriate protection, which allows the crew to travel through the contaminated terrain without endangering their health. Thirdly, the MIOM crew has to carry out the whole range of work to camouflage launchers and their positions. For these tasks, the vehicle is equipped with a cargo body in which metal containers are transported. In just 5 minutes, with the help of a compressor driven by a diesel power plant, the contents of the transported containers are transformed into full-size inflatable dummies of military equipment, which in their appearance and dimensions are completely identical to self-propelled launchers.
Thus, containers with mock-ups of a “false missile battalion” are transported in the MIOM-M cargo box. They are taken out of the body and placed in their place, of course, not with the help of manual labor, but with the help of a crane available on the machine - an on-board manipulator. At the rear of the vehicle is a special grader device that allows you to solve another camouflage task - "distorting traces" left by rocket tractors on the ground.
The vehicle for engineering support and camouflage of engineering units of the Strategic Missile Forces is equipped with the following equipment:
- habitable module for the crew;
- module with a diesel generator;
- 6 containers Ts45-69. Presumably, each of them contains an inflatable simulator of the PGRK launcher. Thus, one vehicle is able to provide a false missile battalion on the ground, consisting of 6 self-propelled launchers with imitation of their thermal image;
- crane for working with containers;
- a grader located at the stern. Serves to camouflage traces of vehicles left on unpaved country roads;
- sliding overall frames, which are designed to test the possibility of movement of the PGRK dimensional self-propelled launcher along an unprepared route;
- equipment designed to assess the bearing capacity of the soil and the carrying capacity of road bridges.
The performance characteristics of MIOM (poster from the Army-2015 forum):
Chassis - MZKT-7930 "Astrologer", wheel arrangement 8x8
Crew - 8 people.
Length - 15, 95 m.
Width - 3.6 m.
Height - 3.9 m.
The ground clearance is at least 400 mm.
The minimum turning radius is 15 m.
The total mass of the equipped vehicle with a crew is no more than 44,700 kg.
Cruising range - up to 750 km.
Autonomy - up to 3 days.
MIOM / Photo: IA "WEAPONS OF RUSSIA", Alexey Kitaev