A conference on the development of air defense of ground forces was held last Thursday at the Military Academy of Military Air Defense (Smolensk). Representatives of the Ministry of Defense and Industry discussed the state and prospects of domestic anti-aircraft systems, and also examined some samples of new technology. At a small exhibition during the conference, various samples of equipment and their models were demonstrated. Of greatest interest is one of the shown anti-aircraft missile systems, called "Sosna". The fact is that earlier this air defense system was not shown at open events and the last exhibition can be considered its first display.
The new short-range air defense missile system "Sosna" was created by the Design Bureau of Precision Engineering. A. E. Nudelman in cooperation with the Saratov Aggregate Plant. Like its predecessors, such as Strela-10, etc., the Sosna complex is designed to provide air defense of formations on the march and in positions. When creating a new air defense system, the development organizations tried to provide it with a number of characteristic features that provide a greater combat potential in comparison with existing systems and increase the survivability of the vehicle on the battlefield.
As noted in the description on the official website of the Design Bureau, modern short-range anti-aircraft missile systems have several serious disadvantages. This is the high cost of a combat vehicle due to the large number of modern equipment, as well as the use of active target detection systems. The latter factor makes the air defense system vulnerable to enemy anti-radar weapons. To solve this problem, back in the nineties, Academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences A. G. Shipunov proposed to abandon the use of complex radar detection systems and use instead equipment that operates on a different principle and does not unmask itself by the emitted signal.
In addition to the presence of passive detection means and high survivability, other requirements were imposed on the promising air defense system. Thus, the Sosny missiles were supposed to hit targets at ranges of up to 10 kilometers, and the list of potential targets of the anti-aircraft complex included not only aircraft, helicopters and cruise missiles, but also unmanned aerial vehicles, precision weapons and other small objects. Two more important requirements concerned the combat vehicle and the launcher. It was required to provide automatic search, detection and tracking of targets, as well as to increase the ammunition on the launcher to 12 missiles.
In the official materials about the Sosna complex, the MT-LB light armored chassis appears as the basis for the combat vehicle. However, all elements of the air defense system can be installed on any suitable chassis, wheeled or tracked. On the roof of the chassis, presented in the published images of the air defense missile system, a tower with an optoelectronic system and a two-block launcher is installed. On the right and left of the tower, mounting devices are fixed, on which six transport and launch containers (TPK) with missiles are installed. By turning the tower, the rocket is roughly guided in azimuth, by tilting the TPK blocks - in elevation. Angle of horizontal guidance - 178 ° in both directions, vertical - from -20 to 82 degrees. Further control of the missile flight is carried out by the corresponding systems of the complex.
|a) helicopter AN-64 - 100 m / s||c) aircraft type F-16 - 300 m / s|
|b) aircraft type A-10 - 200 m / s||d) ALCM cruise missile - 250 m / s|
A two-stage guided missile "Sosna-R" with a combined control system is being developed for the new anti-aircraft complex. Immediately after the missile leaves the container, control is carried out using a radio command system, which displays the ammunition in the line of sight. After that, the starter motor is separated and the anti-jamming laser guidance system is activated. It is proposed to equip the missile with an original two-compartment warhead with a proximity fuse having a circular diagram. The latter compensates for hover errors. The rocket is created as a product that does not need additional checks or tests during its entire service life.
A gyro-stabilized platform with a set of necessary equipment is placed on the turret of the air defense missile system. It contains television and thermal imaging optical systems, a laser rangefinder with the ability to deflect the beam, missile guidance equipment along the laser beam, an infrared rocket direction finder, as well as climate control sensors. All other electronic elements of the anti-aircraft complex are located inside the armored hull. This is a digital computer, a remote control, automatic target acquisition and tracking, a missile control system, etc.
In accordance with the terms of reference, the new Sosna air defense system should have an automatic mode of searching and attacking targets. As stated, the complex can operate in two modes. In the automatic mode, all processes take place without the participation of the operator, which can significantly reduce the reaction time. In semi-automatic mode, the operator controls the operation of the systems, but most of the processes are carried out automatically. Semi-automatic mode is recommended for combat work in a difficult jamming environment.
The missiles and the anti-aircraft complex itself are protected from interference by several methods implemented at the design level. Thus, the location of the laser receiver at the rear of the rocket does not allow distorting or drowning out the control signal. The noise immunity of the ground part of the complex is ensured by a narrow field of view of television and thermal imaging channels (no more than 6, 7x9 degrees), as well as the use of special computational algorithms that allow the target to be identified by its characteristic features.
The Sosna anti-aircraft missile system is supposed to be manufactured in the form of a ready-made fighting compartment, which can be installed on any suitable chassis. At the same time, unlike previous complexes of the same purpose, the Sosny operator is located inside the armored hull and does not rotate with the turret. At the request of the customer, the tower of the anti-aircraft complex can be equipped with an additional small-sized radar station for target detection.
In the basic version, without radar, the Sosna air defense system is said to have high survivability on the battlefield. During the search for a target, the complex does not emit anything, which greatly complicates its detection. During the first two seconds after the missile launch, the missile control system antenna works, after which it turns off and control is carried out only by the laser beam. If necessary, the base machine of the complex can be equipped with additional means of reducing visual or thermal signature.
In general, the Sosna air defense system has rather high prospects, but its future is not yet entirely clear. According to the Chief of the Air Defense Forces of the Ground Forces, Major General A. Leonov, the Sosna complex has not yet passed state tests and its capabilities and prospects have yet to be discussed. After that, the issue of adopting the complex for service will be considered. In the meantime, the refinement and improvement of systems continues.