The ground forces of Poland are currently using the ZSU-23-4, which today cannot perform the tasks of covering the airspace of battalions and brigades on the march and in defense. Although most of them have been upgraded to the level of ZSU-23-4 "Biała", equipped with a new optical-infrared complex and 4 MANPADS "Thunder" (modernized "Igla"). With new ammunition, the effective fire range of the artillery unit has increased to 3 km. And the maximum missile launch range is 5.5 km. But the complex ceased to be all-weather, which reduced its combat effectiveness, which was conceived during the modernization.
And as a result, a gap was formed in the self-propelled air defense systems. In addition, information about the rearmament of Poland is being provided in Russia, which is painfully perceived by society. Is it known that the Polish Air Force still has upgraded S-125 Pechora missile systems or re-flashed 57-mm S-60M cannons in service with the Polish Air Force?
Therefore, the Polish military industry tried to close the gap in the gap with its eastern neighbors. Without purchasing foreign samples, they decided to combine what they produced themselves and what would help them reduce the backlog in the air defense of the Ground Forces. In particular, a pair of Grom MANPADS was installed on the licensed ZU-23-2, and the American RIM-162 ESSM missile was installed on the Cube complexes.
They decided to do the same with self-propelled anti-aircraft artillery.
In the fall of 2000, the PZA Loara (PZA - Przeciwlotniczy Zestaw Artyleryjski Anti-Aircraft Anti-Aircraft System) entered the first test. This complex is designed to destroy low-flying aircraft, helicopters, UAVs, cruise missiles, and can also hit lightly armored targets and medium tanks, and sea targets.
The combination of technology consisted in the fact that the 35-mm Oerlikon GDF-005 was installed on the chassis of the RT-91 tank. It turned out to be a kind of ZSU "Gepard".
Similar schemes are used in the Japanese Type 86 and the Chinese PGZ-2000. The gun itself has proven itself well and is used in many air defense systems.
When the chassis was redesigned, the location of the driver was changed (he was shifted to the left), the control system was improved (the levers were replaced with a steering wheel), an additional auxiliary unit was placed in the rear of the hull and the battery capacity was increased.
The turret monocoque is made of welded armored plates. Tower control: shoulder strap, vertical and horizontal mechanisms electric / electronic. This made it possible to provide a high angular guidance rate. The mass of the tower together with the ammunition supply, control system and crew is 13 tons.
There are ammunition trays and spare barrels inside the turret.
The tower is equipped with equipment that allows you to capture and track targets that have a speed of up to 500 m / s. Two barrels of 35 mm anti-aircraft guns can effectively engage targets at a distance of at least 4000 m. The cannons will use projectiles of the FAPDS-T type (a mixture of BOPS and HE shells with increased ballistics) and APFSDS (BOPS). Electronic programming allows you to set remote firing of elements. Inside the tower there are two crew members, the commander and the gunner-operator, the target is monitored through LCD monitors. Operations are duplicated.
The integrated tracking head of the Ericsson Microwave Systems Eagle radar provides target search in the millimeter range, the French infrared thermal cameras from SAGEM, the KTVD-1 television camera and the DL-1 laser rangefinder provide additional tracking channels. On the rear side of the tower there is an AFAR antenna for primary radar detection of targets by the station at a distance of up to 27 km. This radar scans vertically with a built-in friend or foe request and allows simultaneous tracking of up to 64 targets.
Information update rate 1 sec. (The antenna rotates at 60 rpm). The radar has low power consumption, small "drift" of radio side lobes and high resistance to active and passive interference.
Data processing is carried out by the stations NUR-22 "Izabela" and Łowcza-3K.
An advanced fire control system allows you to work even when the radar is off, which reduces the likelihood of being hit by anti-radar missiles. ZSU can exchange information with other battery vehicles and control points and receive target designation even in "blind" mode.
The performance characteristics of the PZA Loara:
Crew - 3
Combat weight - 45 300 kg
Hull length - 6, 67 m
Width - 3, 47 meters
Clearance - 0.77 m
Maximum speed - 60 km / year
The cruising range is 450-500 km.
The ability to overcome obstacles:
Wall height - 0.8 m
fords depth (without preparation) - 1, 2 m
The width of the trench is 2, 8 m.
Engine: probably S - 1000; power: 735 kW (1000 hp).
Armament: 35mm KDA cannon (35x228 mm), manufactured under license at the Stalowa Wola factory.
The first presentation of the ZSU was significant at the MSPO-2004 exhibition, and attracted the attention of foreign military attachés. According to the declared characteristics, it surpassed the ZSU "Gepard"
At MSPO 2006, a contract for the supply of the first PZA was ready to be signed, but the military demanded improvement.
Initially, they wanted to order 60 complexes (6 vehicles in a battery) However, the successful tests of the Anders light tracked platform and the abandonment of the T (RT) series tanks led to the decision that a similar SPAAG would be built on the new Rydwan (Chariot) platform.
In mid-summer 2012, a contract was signed between the Stalowa Wola plant and the Naval Academy for the supply of towed KDA kits, which are to replace the ZU-23-2.