It is believed that the first amphibious vehicle in Germany was created in 1904. Its inventor was a skipper from Northern Germany, who equipped his motor boat with a pair of automobile axles - a front axle with steerable but not drive wheels and a rear axle with drive wheels (driven by a motor boat engine). This skipper was granted several patents for the "car boat", but it did not develop due to very low cross-country ability, especially on coastal soil, since it had only rear wheels driving, that is, its amphibious wheel arrangement was 4x2.
Presumably this "car boat" (in other words "Mobile-bot") was 7, 2 meters long and 1, 8 meters wide. The total weight is 2 tons. Engine power 28.0 horsepower (20.6 kW). The maximum speed of movement on water was 6.5 kilometers per hour and was provided by two propellers (diameter 320 mm). The conditional energy loading of the screws was equal to 128, 2 kW / m2.
With a specific power of the vessel of 10, 3 kW / t, the relative speed on the water was 0, 51. The total thrust of the propellers, in relation to the hydraulic area of the propellers, was approximately 23, 57 kN / m2.
There is no more information about this "car boat", except that it was forgotten after the next and most likely very strong stuck in the coastal zone of the North Sea.
Despite this, its appearance led to the creation of another wheeled amphibious vehicle "Hoppe-Cross", which was created to equip the customs service. The wheel formula of the new amphibious vehicle was 4x4, the total weight was 4 tons, the engine power was 45 hp. (33, 12 kW), it was arranged in the middle of the boat. Power was taken from both ends of the crankshaft: from the front end to the propeller shaft through a vertical gearbox, shaft and coupling, and from the rear through the clutch, vertical transfer case, shafts and gearbox to the main drives of the driving axles.
It should be noted that the power take-off from a pair of ends of the crankshaft, although it complicated the design of the amphibian, was rational for several reasons, the main one of which was that with such a scheme, the drive of the water propeller turned out to be independent, that is, it was not associated with the gears in the gearbox.
The overall dimensions of this machine were: length - 6800 mm, width - 2100 mm, wheelbase - 3170 mm, front wheel track - 2300 mm, track on the outer wheel of the rear dual-slope wheels - 2450 mm.
The speed of movement on water was 11 kilometers per hour and was provided by one propeller with a diameter of 450 mm. The specific power of the amphibian was 8.28 kW / t. Three of this, the Froude number in terms of displacement was 0, 77. The conventional energy load of the propeller is 208, 4 kW / m2. The thrust of the propeller, referred to the hydraulic area of the propeller, was approximately 34.81 kN / m2.
There is no information on how many of these machines were produced and how they were used. But both amphibious vehicles show that at the dawn of amphibious construction in Germany, an attempt was made to give a motor boat terrestrial properties by means of automobile bridges and supplying power to them from the boat's engine.
In subsequent years in Germany, motorization advanced quite strongly, but in the years before the First World War, and during the war years, practically no work was carried out on the creation of such machines.
Only in 1932, Hans Trippel, a 24-year-old design engineer, on his own initiative, began to create an amphibious vehicle. However, he did not follow the path of his predecessors, who adapted motor boats for movement on land, but, on the contrary, at first began to change the design of cars to provide them with the properties of navigability. Triplet modified the DKW chassis with a two-stroke two-cylinder engine and front-axle drive. He installed a propeller at the rear of the machine, which was driven through an auxiliary drive from the gearbox.
The first successes allowed Trippel to create a second amphibious vehicle already in 1933. A "Triumph" passenger car of the Adler company was used as a chassis. This model also had front-wheel drive, but used a more powerful four-stroke 4-cylinder engine. The propeller drive and location were similar to those of the first model. These machines became known in the Wehrmacht and in 1934 G. Trippel was given the first military order for the creation of an experimental amphibious vehicle.
The basic model for the subcompact amphibious vehicle for the Wehrmacht was a standard light car with all steerable and drive wheels. To mount the machine gun at the front of the vehicle, its engine, systems, clutch and gearbox were moved to the middle. In the stern, a propeller and a drive from a gearbox were installed. However, as further tests showed, such a change in the layout scheme was not entirely successful.
To continue work on the creation of amphibious vehicles, G. Trippel bought a small plant in the Saar, where in 1935 they created the SG 6 version.
The SG 6 had a load-bearing metal displacement body. Wheel formula - 4x4. Initially, the SG 6 was powered by an Adler 4-cylinder engine, and later by an Opel 6-cylinder engine. The mechanical transmission had self-locking differentials that increase the vehicle's cross-country ability. The stern propeller from the driver's seat was retracted into the hull niche when the machine went on land. This model was produced until 1944 inclusive. At the same time, the total number of cars did not exceed 1000 units. Naturally, according to the results of combat operation, changes were made to the design of the car every year, but it is rather difficult to track them.
In one version of the car, the engine and its systems were arranged in the front of the body, which had a spoon-like shape, which made it possible to reduce water resistance. In the middle section, seats for the driver and four passengers and controls were installed. In the rear part there was a 60-liter fuel tank and a niche, into which the propeller was removed during movement on land (three blades, 380 mm in diameter). The propeller drive from the power take-off, which was installed on the gearbox, was displaced 140 millimeters to the left side from the longitudinal axis of the machine. With the vertical arrangement of the propeller chain drive column, this led to the creation of a turning moment that deflected the car to the right side while driving on water. The displacement of the car to the right was eliminated either by turning the front steered wheels to the left, or by turning the screw column until the axle was aligned with the longitudinal axis of the car. However, in both cases, the elimination of the deflection led to a decrease in speed on the water.
When the propeller drive columns were located vertically, almost the entire hydraulic area of the propeller was below the plane of the car's bottom and was not shielded by it. This provided water leakage to the propeller, but increased the likelihood of its damage while moving in shallow water, leaving the water to the shore and entering it. In this regard, a protective crutch was installed on the lower part of the column crankcase, which protected the screw from breakage in case of contact with underwater obstacles, and did not lead to its removal into the housing niche. Therefore, if the conditions on the shore were not known, the exit from the water and the entrance into it was carried out with the propeller removed due to the traction of the driving wheels of the car. The propeller was lowered to the working position only after the car had completely floated up. However, in many cases, this did not ensure overcoming the coastal strip.
With a power of 40, 48 kW of the car engine, the conditional energy load of the propeller was 357, 28 kW / m2, which ensured movement in calm deep water at a speed of up to 12 km / h. In this case, the relative speed (Froude's displacement number) was 0.92. Control while driving on the water was provided by changing the position of the front steered wheels. This way of turning guaranteed good controllability while driving at sufficiently high or maximum speeds. When driving at low speed, the controllability of the car was insufficient, especially on a river with a noticeable current speed.
Wheel suspension - independent with swinging of the levers in the transverse plane. Coil springs were elastic suspension elements. The maximum speed on the highway with a specific power of 17.6 kW / t was 105 kilometers per hour.
Mass and dimensional parameters: gross weight - 2.3 tons, carrying capacity - 0.8 tons, length - 4.93 m, width -1.86 m, wheelbase - 2.430 m, track - 1.35 m, road clearance - 30 cm.
In 1937, the SK 8 amphibious sports car was developed at the Saar plant. This car was lighter in weight, had a more streamlined body, was equipped with a 2-liter Adler engine, and the front wheels were drive. The propeller was fixedly installed in the aft recess of the hull. The car has been extensively tested for two years on the rivers of Germany as well as in the Mediterranean and North Seas. This development again attracted the attention of the Wehrmacht.
In 1938, G. Trippel's plant developed and manufactured a new model of an amphibious vehicle. The main changes in this model concerned the car body. The car received a more streamlined shape, removable covers covered the rear wheel wells, two doors appeared large enough and some other innovations were not present in previous models of amphibious vehicles in Germany.
G. Trippel in 1939 received an order from the Wehrmacht to create an amphibious vehicle for sapper units based on SG 6. She was supposed to have a wider, up to two meters, hull and capable of carrying up to 16 people.
Here, in the story about G. Trippel's amphibious vehicles, it is necessary to take a short break, since in 1939-1940 the Wehrmacht decided to equip the ground forces with various amphibious equipment that would be useful during the invasion of England.
Among the first works in this direction was the creation of a floating craft intended for light tanks, which made it possible to swim across wide water obstacles, and after reaching land, to drop auxiliary pontoons and equipment that provides buoyancy and movement speed. Further, the transport was supposed to act like a regular tank.
One such watercraft (Panzerkampfwagen II mit Schwimmkorper) was developed in Roslau by Sachsenberg at the end of 1940. It was intended for light tanks Pz Kpfw II Aust C. In the course of this work, two types of additional pontoons were tested: in one case, the pontoons were fixed along the sides (in this they significantly increased the water resistance since the width of the floating craft with the tank was large); in the second case, the main pontoons were located behind and in front of the tank hull (in this case, the water resistance decreased, a higher speed was achieved while moving on the water).
Light tanks Pz Kpfw II, which were produced in Germany since June 1938 by seven firms (Henschel, Daimler-Benz, MAN and others), had a combat weight of 8900 kg, length - 4, 81 m, width - 2, 22 m and height - 1, 99 m. The crew of the TWNK consisted of three people. The tanks had bulletproof armor with 14.5 mm thick turret and hull sheets. The armament consisted of a 20 mm cannon and a 7, 92 mm machine gun. They were installed in a circular rotation tower. The Maybach engine with a power of 190 kW made it possible to reach speeds on land up to 40 kilometers per hour, on water (provided the tank was equipped with a floating craft) - 10 kilometers per hour. The propellers were driven by the drive wheels of the caterpillar propeller.
The Borgward company, on the basis of two modifications of tracked radio-controlled vehicles intended for demining (Minenraumwagen), has developed an experimental amphibious vehicle for the same purposes. It was equipped with a 36 kW engine, had a 4-roller tracked undercarriage and a three-blade aft propeller with two water rudders installed on the sides of it, designed to control the machine afloat. There is no information on the use of this experimental radio-controlled amphibious vehicle.
The Wehrmacht in 1936 ordered the Rheinmetall company to develop and manufacture a special tracked amphibious vehicle for amphibious operations - LWS (Land-Wasser-Schlepper). The new vehicle was supposed not only to carry troops in the vehicle body, but also to tow floating wheeled trailers with different carrying capacities.
It was originally intended that the LWS would be used in limited European waters, as well as in the invasion of England. However, after the abandonment of the invasion, interest in amphibious vehicles in Germany practically died out.
The LWS was originally a tracked tug that was designed to carry 20 people in its hull (crew of 3). Gross vehicle weight from 16 to 17 tons. Armament was not installed on the LWS. The amphibious vehicle was equipped with a towing device and a winch. LWS dimensions: length - 8600 mm, width - 3160 mm, height - 3130 mm.
The body of the machine was made of steel sheets, its bow had a pointed shape, the bottom was smooth. Some of the hull sheets, especially the nasal bottom sheet, were reinforced with stiffening ribs (stampings). The hull deckhouse was located in the middle and front parts of the hull. It towered about a meter above the roof of the hull. In the front of the wheelhouse there was a control compartment (three crew members), behind it a landing squad. In the front part there were closed windows with a large glazing area, the side panels of the cabin had portholes.
A 206 kW carburetor V-shaped 12-cylinder Maybach HL 120 NRMV-12 engine (installed on pre-production vehicles) was placed in the rear. The engine provided a maximum speed of up to 40 km / h on the highway, with a specific power of 12, 87 kW / t. The fuel range is 240 kilometers. The caterpillar drive had rear guides and front drive wheels. The undercarriage had 8 road wheels and 4 support rollers on each side. However, there was unsatisfactory maneuverability and mobility on land.
Movement through the water was provided by two tunnel four-bladed propellers with a diameter of 800 millimeters. Water rudders were installed behind the propellers. The maximum speed without load on water was 12.5 kilometers per hour. The Froude number in terms of displacement (no load) was 0.714. Conditional energetic loading of the propellers was 205.0 kW / m2. The navigability of the car was assessed as good.
A floating tractor on land and afloat could tow a three- or four-axle wheeled floating trailer (with a carrying capacity of 10 and 20 tons, respectively). These trailers were designed to transport various military cargo.
The body of a three-axle trailer is a pontoon with parallel vertical sides. Trailer length - 9000 mm, width - 3100 mm, height - 2700 mm. Cargo platform dimensions: length - 8500 mm, width - 2500 mm. To facilitate loading and unloading, the trailer was equipped with a rear side hinged on hinges.
The overall dimensions of the four-axle floating trailer were: length - 10000 mm, width - 3150 mm, height - 3000 mm. The unladen weight of the trailer was 12.5 thousand kg. To increase cross-country ability while driving over rough terrain, caterpillar belts were put on the wheels.
Probably, in addition to seven pre-production amphibious vehicles, 14 more cars of the second LWS series were manufactured. The vehicles of the second series had some improvements in design and partial armor of the hull, but practically the same technical characteristics as the pre-production vehicles. On machines of the second series, a V-shaped 12-cylinder 220 kW carburetor engine Maybach HL 120 TRM was installed.
LWS amphibious vehicles were used on the Eastern Front as well as in North Africa. In particular, they took part in Europe and during the assault on Tobruk.
In mid-1942, the Pz F (Panzerfahre) armored tracked carrier was created to replace the unarmored LWS. The PzKpfw IV Aust F medium tank (chassis, engine, transmission units) was taken as a base. Two prototypes were made. These tracked armored transporters were capable of towing heavy-duty wheeled floating trailers on water and on land.
Now let's go back to Trippel's amphibious vehicles. After the end of hostilities in France, Trippel in June 1940 acquired the Bugatti car factory in Alsace, which also organized the production of amphibious vehicles. All wheels of this car were driven and steered. The propeller on the water was one fixed-mounted three-blade propeller.
The main share of G. Trippel's products was made up of improved all-wheel drive SG 6, equipped with a 2.5-liter 6-cylinder Opel engine. For these vehicles, single-axle floating trailers were also developed, which were towed by a car and transported a variety of military cargo by water.
All previous Trippel amphibious vehicles had an open-top hull, but in 1942 a batch of cars with a completely closed hull and a sliding roof was manufactured. The propaganda units were equipped with these machines.
In 43, they designed and built a prototype all-wheel drive amphibious vehicle SG 7, with a V-shaped 8-cylinder air-cooled Tatra engine, which was located in the aft part. The car was not mass-produced, but became the basis for the creation of the E 3 reconnaissance floating wheeled vehicle, armed with a machine gun and a 20-mm cannon. The armor of the amphibian hull was differentiated (thickness from 5.5 to 14.5 millimeters). The sheets had large angles of inclination. The total length of the armored car is 5180 mm, width is 1900 mm. This car was produced in small series in 1943-1944. In October 1944, Trippel was notified of the termination of the production of the E 3 floating wheeled vehicle.
Wheel formula E 3 - 4x4. The air-cooled Tatra engine with a power of 52 kW was located in the stern. The propellers on the water were two propeller tunnel propellers. In 1944, a modification of the E 3 was created - an amphibious armored wheeled vehicle E 3M, designed to transport ammunition.
In addition, in 1944, a floating snowmobile was created, which, in addition to four wheels, had volumetric skids for sliding on the snow and swimming. A large-diameter aircraft propeller was installed in the rear of the vehicle. With its help, the snowmobile moved through the snow and water. However, only three of these cars were made.
Somewhat later, additional equipment was developed for the SG 6, which significantly improved its cross-country ability on soils with low bearing capacity. The emergence of this equipment was due to the frequent jamming of amphibious vehicles when entering and leaving the water, as well as when driving in shallow water. In this case, the movement was provided only by the traction force of the driving wheels, which was significantly reduced due to a decrease in the grip weight of the car. The decrease in the latter was a consequence of the effect of hydrostatic support forces (buoyancy) on the car.
At the end of World War II, it was forbidden in Germany to develop various objects of military equipment, including amphibious vehicles. Despite this, Trippel was able to slightly improve and modernize the design of the amphibious vehicle SG 6. In addition, he was able to carry out tests of the car in the Swiss army in 1951, which he withstood well.
In subsequent years, G. Trippel worked intensively on sports small cars, which were produced by the Protek company in Tuttlingen, and later in Stuttgart. Among these vehicles was also the "Amphibia" - an open, small, sporty amphibious vehicle. In 1950, it was tested on land and water and became the predecessor of the then created "Amfikar".
The idea of a light amphibious vehicle was very popular with American sports car enthusiasts. This helped create the Amfikar Corporation in the United States, with its headquarters in New York. G. Trippel became the vice-president and technical director of the company. In 1960, the engineering plants in Karlsruhe, which belonged to the Quandt Group (IWK), began mass production of the Amfikar. Later, the German engineering plants (DWM) in Berlin and Borsigwald, which also belonged to the Quandt group, also participated in the production of this car. In two years, about 25 thousand cars were to be produced. These vehicles were only produced for the Amfikar Corporation, which were shipped to the United States for sale. The selling price of the car was about $ 3,400.
The Amfikar car was a 4-seater floating sports convertible. When driving on land, it does not differ from ordinary passenger cars. The maximum speed on the highway is 110 km / h; it took 22 seconds to accelerate to 80 km / h. Average fuel consumption while driving on land is 9.6 liters per 100 kilometers. The fuel tank was designed for 47 liters.
The two-door load-bearing displacement hull, made of steel sheets of various thicknesses, has been streamlined to reduce water resistance. The lower part of the body and the area of the doors were reinforced with frame tubular elements that provide the necessary rigidity. The doors had additional locks that were used while moving on water. These locks provided reliable sealing of the doors even if the car entered the water with the locks not fully closed. The trunk was located at the front of the body. It contained a spare tire. Part of the transported things fit into the free space behind the rear seats.
The car had a removable top and lowering side windows that could be lowered when driving on water and on land.
In the rear of the hull there was an English in-line 4-cylinder 4-stroke carburetor engine (power 28, 18 kW, 4750 rpm). The placement of the engine in the rear of the hull was dictated by the need to give the car a trim to the stern when driving on water and a simpler drive to the propellers. At the same time, this arrangement made it difficult to cool the engine. In this regard, the liquid cooling system was equipped with an additional oil cooler in the air stream, which cooled the water radiator.
The rear drive wheels were driven by a mechanical transmission. The clutch is dry, single disc. The gearbox is fully synchronized, 4-speed. The power take-off for the propellers was installed on the gearbox housing. The power take-off came from the intermediate shaft. This system allows you to include the propeller drive and any gear, depending on the driving conditions. A separate lever was used to control the power take-off. It had three positions - off, forward and reverse. The gear ratio of the power take-off is 3.0.
The undercarriage had an independent suspension with longitudinally spaced levers, which ensured a constant track. Elastic suspension elements - coil springs with telescopic hydraulic shock absorbers located inside them. Tire size - 6, 40x13.
Shoe brakes were not sealed. In this regard, all critical parts had an anti-corrosion coating. The brake drive is hydraulic. The parking brake had a mechanical drive to the rear wheel brakes.
Movement through the water was provided by a pair of propellers located in tunnels in the aft part of the hull on both sides of the engine compartment. Propellers - right-hand rotation, three-bladed. For their manufacture, polyamide resins were used.
The maximum speed when driving in deep calm water is 10 km / h (specific power - 20.9 kW / t, propeller stop - 2.94 kN, Froude's displacement number - 0.84). Fuel consumption at maximum speed is not more than 12 liters per hour. At a speed of 5 kilometers per hour, fuel consumption was reduced to 2.3 liters per hour. Changing the direction of movement was provided by turning the steered front wheels. To remove seawater from the car, which got into the car through damage to various seals and leaks, as well as in the case of splashing when sailing in waves, a bilge bilge pump was installed in the hull, which was electrically driven from an onboard 12-volt power grid. The pump feed is equal to 27.3 liters per minute.
Mass and dimensional characteristics of "Amfikar": vehicle weight - 1050 kilograms, gross weight - 1350 kilograms, carrying capacity - 300 kilograms. Distribution of vehicle weight over axles: 550 kilograms - on the front axle, 830 kilograms - on the rear axle. Overall length - 4330 mm, width - 1565 mm, height - 1520 mm. The ground clearance is 253 millimeters. The base is 2100 mm, the track of the rear wheels is 1260 mm, the front is 1212 mm.
In Germany, from 1942 to 1944, for the Wehrmacht, in addition to Trippel amphibious vehicles, various modifications of small amphibious vehicles Pkw K2s prepared by Volkswagen plants were produced. They all differed little from each other. In total, about 15 thousand copies of these cars were manufactured.
The most common model of this small amphibious vehicle was the VW 166. Its total gross weight was 1345 kilograms, and the carrying capacity was 435 kilograms. Wheel formula - 4x4. The carburetor engine with a power of 18.4 kW (rotation speed of 3000 rpm) had a rear position.
Engine power was taken from both ends of its crankshaft. At one end for connection to all drive wheels of the vehicle (via manual transmission). From the toe of the crankshaft, power was taken through the drive shaft with a clutch and a vertical three-row chain drive - to the three-blade propeller lowered to the operating lower position. In the working position, almost the entire area of the propeller (diameter 330 mm) was below the plane of the car bottom, the protective crutch of the propeller - 50 mm from the ground surface.
On the one hand, such an arrangement of the screw practically did not increase the water resistance due to its operation, did not screen the water leakage by the body and, therefore, increased the efficiency. and traction characteristics of the propeller during its work behind the body. On the other hand, this arrangement significantly increased the likelihood of damage to the propeller when driving in shallow water, entering and exiting water and out of it.
Therefore, to prevent breakage of the propeller in contact with the underwater soil, its block was made reclining in a vertical plane. At the same time, the cam clutch was disconnected and the supply of engine power was automatically stopped. After the protective crutch came off the underwater obstacle, the propeller block was lowered into the operating position under the action of its own weight, and the driven part of the cam clutch was locked with the leading part of the clutch under the action of the propeller thrust force. The leading part of the clutch was attached to the drive shaft. The propeller blades rotated inside the protective ring. In the upper part of the protective ring, there was a protective visor, which prevented atmospheric air from sucking to the propeller blades to prevent a drop in thrust. The entire propeller unit, while moving overland, rose to the upper position and locked on the hull.
The side-door hull design was rational. The body was made of 1 mm steel sheets. However, its disadvantages include a large number of seals on the surface and underwater parts of the hull, which, when worn out, led to the ingress of seawater into the hull. Another feature of the hull was the absence of wheel arches that shielded the upper part of the wheels and somewhat increased the vehicle's buoyancy.
The car had an independent suspension of all wheels with their swing in the longitudinal plane. Tire size - 5, 25x16. Torsion bars played the role of elastic suspension elements. The rear wheel track is 1230 mm, the front wheel is 1220 mm. Overall dimensions: length - 3825 mm, width - 1480 mm, height with an installed awning - 1615 mm. Ground clearance: under the rear axle - 245 millimeters, under the front axle - 240 millimeters, under the bottom - 260 millimeters.
The maximum speed on the highway is 80 kilometers per hour (specific power - 13.68 kW / t, fuel consumption - 8.5 liters per 100 kilometers). The maximum speed in calm deep water is 10 kilometers per hour. The Froude number in terms of displacement is 0, 84.
The main design flaw of this car, like the Trippel cars, was the inability to simultaneously use the work of the driving wheels and propellers when entering and leaving the water and swimming in shallow water. This significantly reduced the cross-country ability in these conditions.
In 1960-1964, prototypes of Volkswagen cars with a closed body were demonstrated in the Strait of Messina for advertising purposes.
Later, in Germany, a light amphibious vehicle Amphi-Ranger 2800SR was created with the following technical characteristics: wheel arrangement - 4x4, weight - 2800 kg, payload - 860 kg, engine power 74 or 99 kW and specific power 26, 4 or 35, 35 kW / T. Dimensions: length - 4651 mm, width - 1880 mm, base - 2500 mm.
The car body was made of 3mm aluminum sheets, designed for 6 people. The shape of the bow is spoon-shaped, the bottom is smooth. In the aft part of the hull there was a niche into which the propeller was retracted while moving overland.
A car with a 74 kW engine developed a top speed of 120 km / h (on the highway), and 15 km / h (on water). The Froude number in terms of displacement is 1, 12. The maximum speed of a car with an installed 99 kW engine was 140 km / h on the highway and 17 km / h on water. The freeboard is about 500 millimeters. The radius of circulation (when turning on the wheels and turning off the propeller) does not exceed 5 meters. The car could be operated on water at a wave height of up to 2 meters, with the installation of a protective awning. On the water, control was carried out using the front steerable wheels.
Of the other samples that were developed in the late 60s and delivered to the series, it is necessary to note the M2 ferry-bridge car, which had five modifications. Production was organized at the Klockner-Humboldt-Deutz and Eisenwerke Kaiserslautern factories. The vehicle is used in the German, British and Singaporean armies.
The designs of the ferry-bridge amphibious vehicles of the armies of many countries, including Germany, make it possible to change the method of ferrying equipment depending on the conditions. In some cases, cars are used as single or modular ferries with increased carrying capacity, in others, their design allows you to build floating bridges of various lengths and carrying capacities with double-track or single-track traffic of ferrying vehicles. To do this, two additional metal rigid pontoons are installed on the roof of the machine's hull, which, using the hydraulic system, before entering the water, are lowered next to the hull from both sides, while turning 180 degrees on the lower side hinges. In the bow of the pontoons, one 600 mm propeller is installed. The third 650 mm propeller is installed in the recess of the bow of the hull under the cab of the main machine. The screw is able to rise in and out of the niche, as well as rotate in a horizontal plane.
Since the car afloat moves stern forward, an additional control post was organized above the cockpit, from which the crew could perform preparatory and basic work on using the car as a ferry-bridge vehicle. In the aft parts of the hull and additional pontoons (during movement on the water, they were bow), wave-reflecting shields were installed, which prevent the flow of a retaining bow wave onto the vehicle body and pontoons. To remove seawater in the body of the main machine, several water-pumping pumps with electric drives were installed.
To facilitate work with additional pontoons during their lifting and lowering, as well as for loading and unloading operations with small non-self-propelled loads along the longitudinal axis of the vehicle, a low-capacity crane was installed in the transport position.
The wheel formula of the M2 ferry-bridge car is 4x4. All steering wheels are equipped with independent suspension. Tire size - 16.00x20.
The car was equipped with two diesel V-shaped 8-cylinder Deutz Model F8L714 engines (power of each 131.0 kW, maximum speed of 2300 rpm). The specific power of the machine when driving on land without cargo is 5, 95 kW / t.
The own weight of the car is 22 thousand kg. Overall dimensions when driving on land in transport position: length - 11315 millimeters, width - 3579 millimeters, height - 3579 millimeters. The base of the car is 5350 mm, the track of the rear wheels is 2161 mm, the front is 2130 mm. The ground clearance is adjustable, from 600 to 840 millimeters. The width of the car with unfolded ramps and lowered additional pontoons is 14160 millimeters.
The maximum speed on the highway is 60 km / h, the fuel range is 1,000 km. The turning diameter is 25.4 m, the relative turning diameter, that is, the diameter related to the length of the car is 2.44.
Movement through the water was provided by the operation of two 600-mm propellers with power supply from one of the engines (conditional energy load of the propeller - 231, 4 kW / m2). Another engine drives a 650mm propeller used to drive the car afloat (its nominal energy load is 394 kW / m2). In addition, side propellers were used for control afloat.
The speed of the car on the water is up to 14 km / h, the power reserve for fuel is up to 6 hours (the Froude number for the displacement is 0.74).
The experience of using the M2 ferry-bridge machines made it possible to outline the main directions for modifying its design. On the new model of the M2D machine, it was envisaged to install onboard soft inflatable tanks, which made it possible to increase the carrying capacity to 70 tons. On the next model - MZ - the direction of movement on water and on land was the same (in the M2 machine, movement on the water was carried out stern forward). Inflatable tanks were placed in the wheel arches to increase the displacement. In addition, the four removable superstructures were replaced by three with a simultaneous increase in the dimensions of the link in the bridge line.
It should be noted that in the early 70s, some German firms began to develop military amphibious vehicles together with companies from other countries. This approach was convenient for many reasons, the main one of which was the legalization of work bypassing the remaining post-war restrictions on the creation of military equipment.
For example, the German company MAN and the Belgian company BN have developed the SIBMAS armored car. It was mainly exported to Latin America and Southeast Asia. The armored car can be equipped with a turret having various sets of weapons.
The first sample was made in 1976. The total combat weight is 18.5 thousand kg. Wheel formula - 6x6. Dimensions: length - 7320 mm, width - 2500 mm, roof height - 2240 mm, ground clearance - 400 mm.
For the manufacture of the body of the machine, steel armor plates were used, which provided protection against bullets of caliber 7, 62 mm.
The control compartment was in the front part, and the driver's seat, his controls and observation devices are located on the longitudinal axis of the car.
Behind the control compartment were the places of the crew commander and the gunner. The variant of the armored personnel carrier could take 11-13 people into the compartment for the landing.
The engine compartment is located in the rear left part of the body. Engine - diesel six-cylinder liquid-cooled 235.5 kW (D2566MTFG by MAN). The specific power of the machine is 12, 73 kW / t.
Transmission - 6-speed automatic transmission of the ZF type. The suspension is independent.
Movement through the water is provided either by the rotation of all wheels, or by means of two propellers installed outside the hull behind the wheels of the third axle in the stern. Speed in deep calm water - up to 10 km / h (Froude number for displacement - 0, 546).
Travel speed on land - up to 120 km / h. The 425-liter fuel tank provided a 1,000 km range.
Firms Rheinmetall and Krauss-Maffey together with FMC (USA) In the late 70s and early 80s, they developed a multi-purpose amphibious self-propelled artillery mount with a 105-mm howitzer cannon. The base was an American amphibious armored personnel carrier M113A1 with bulletproof booking.
The combat weight of the vehicle is 14 thousand kg. Crew - 7 people. Machine dimensions: length - 4863 mm, width - 2686 mm, height - 1828 mm, ground clearance - 432 mm.
The armament of the vehicle consisted of a 105-mm howitzer cannon (45 rounds of ammunition), a 12, 7-mm machine gun (4000 rounds of ammunition).
A 221 kW Detroit diesel engine with liquid cooling and turbocharging provided the unit with a specific power of 15.8 kW / t. This power unit allows a maximum speed of 61 km / h (highway) and 63 km / h (water). Movement through the water was carried out due to the rotation of the tracks, the upper branch of which was placed in a hydrodynamic casing. The Froude number by displacement is 0, 36.
In 1973, the Bundeswehr adopted the Lux 8x8 combat reconnaissance amphibious vehicle. In mid-1978, the delivery of 408 BRMs ordered by the Bundeswehr was completed. Development of the Luks began on a competitive basis around 1965. It was attended by the company Daimler-Benz, leading an independent development of this machine for those. the assignment of the Ministry of Defense of the Federal Republic of Germany, and a joint group of well-known auto companies (Klockner-Humboldt-Dütz, Bussing, MAN, Krupp and Rheinstahl-Henschel), which formed a joint design bureau specifically for the creation of this machine.
In 1967, the initial tests of experimental samples were carried out. However, the winner of the competition was not identified. Both machines - both of the combined group of companies and the Daimler-Benz company - corresponded to most of the points of the assignment of the Ministry of Defense of the Federal Republic of Germany. In this regard, both competitors continued to make improvements to the machines, implementing them in nine subsequent prototypes. At the end of 1973, the Ministry of Defense of the Federal Republic of Germany made its choice and entered into an agreement with the main contractor of the united group - the Rheinstahl-Henschel company.
The first serial sample "Lux", which was manufactured at the plant in the city of Kassel, in September 1975 was handed over to the representatives of the Bundeswehr of Germany.
The features of the general layout of the "Lux" were two control posts, a wheelbase according to the 8x8 formula, all wheels were steerable. The main driver-mechanic who controlled the forward movement of the car was at the front of its body. The second driver-mechanic, a part-time radio operator, was in the second control post in the rear of the car and is capable of moving the Lux in the opposite direction, if necessary, without turning 180 degrees. In this case, the car is able to move in both directions at the same speed.
Since all eight driving wheels of the car are steerable, and the car itself is equipped with two control posts, it is possible to use the steering in three modes: when driving forward, use the wheels of two front axles as steered, and in reverse - two rear axles. In some cases (maneuvering in cramped conditions at low speeds, driving on soft soils, etc.), all steerable drive wheels were used to change direction. At the same time, the turning radius was reduced by almost half, and the permeability on unbound soft soils is improved. The latter can be explained by the fact that the car, during such a movement, formed only two tracks on the ground.
The combat weight of the vehicle is 19.5 thousand kg. The crew of the car is 4 people. The embarkation and disembarkation of the crew is carried out through hatches in the turret and the roof of the hull. In addition, for this purpose, a large hatch was made between the wheels of the second and third axles on the left side. Overall dimensions: length - 7740 mm, width - 2980 mm, height - 2840 mm. The ground clearance is 440 mm.
The maximum speed is 90 km / h (on the highway). The power reserve is 800 kilometers.
A fully enclosed armored body protects the crew and equipment from bullets and fragments of shells and mines. The frontal projection of the hull provides protection against 20 mm armor-piercing projectiles.
To increase the concealment of movement and the implementation of reconnaissance activities, the machine has infrared and sound masking, the temperature and noise level of the gases emitted are significantly reduced. The use of a perfect noise suppression system makes the car practically inaudible at a distance of 50 meters.
The main armament of the machine is located in a rotating turret with a circular rotation. It was located along the longitudinal axis of the car directly behind the driver's seat. A two-man turret (which houses the commander and gunner) is equipped with a 20-mm unstabilized automatic cannon with large elevation angles, which allows firing not only at ground targets, but also at air targets. Ammunition - 400 rounds. A rangefinder and periscopic sights are installed in the tower, which provide targeted shooting and observation not only in daylight, but also in the dark. In addition, there are 12 prismatic devices through which observation is carried out with closed hatches. 7, the 62mm MG3 machine gun was an auxiliary weapon and was mounted above the commander's hatch. Machine gun ammunition is designed for 2000 rounds. Six smoke grenade launchers are installed on the sides outside the tower (three on each side).
As a reconnaissance vehicle, it has modern radio communications and a navigation system.
The engine-transmission compartment is located in the middle part and is isolated from the internal volume by special heat and sound insulating partitions. To move from the stern of the car to the bow there is a passage on the starboard side. This compartment is powered by a Daimler-Benz V-type 10-cylinder multi-fuel turbocharged diesel engine. Power when using diesel fuel power is 287 kW when using gasoline - 220.8 kW. This power provides the car when working on diesel fuel, the specific power - 14, 7 kW / t, when working on gasoline - 11, 3 kW / t. The engine is made in one block with a hydraulic transformer, a gearbox and other units. The main purpose of such an installation is to simplify and accelerate the replacement of this unit in the field during car repairs.
The suspension of the chassis has elastic spring elements with hydraulic shock absorbers. Tire size - 14.00x20.
A centralized tire pressure control system connects to all wheels.
The machine has a high cross-country ability, is able to overcome a moat up to 190 cm wide and a vertical wall up to 80 cm, in addition, the machine is able to overcome various water obstacles without preparation.
Movement through the water is provided by two four-bladed propellers. They are located behind the wheels of the fourth axle outside the armored body. The propellers are capable of turning about the vertical axis using a special electro-hydraulic drive. This creates turning moments when changing direction of travel, as well as when braking afloat.
The maximum speed on the water is 10 km / h. The Froude number by displacement is 0, 545. To prevent flooding of the upper frontal sheets with a retaining bow wave and the subsequent increase in the trim of the car, a wave-reflecting shield equipped with a hydraulic drive is installed on the upper sheet on the nose.
As noted earlier, the Lux BRM was mass-produced from 1975 to 1978. In other countries, "Lux" was not supplied, but was used as part of the German IFOR contingent on the territory of Yugoslavia in NATO and UN operations.
Between 1979 and mid-1980, deliveries began of the TPz "Fyks" multipurpose amphibious wheeled armored personnel carrier with a 6x6 wheel arrangement. They were produced about 1000 units.
The development of the armored personnel carrier has been carried out since 1973 and Porsche jointly with Daimler-Benz firms, and cooperation production was organized in Kassel by several companies led by Thyssen-Henschel. On the technological basis of this armored vehicle, it was planned to create seven other modifications: for engineering reconnaissance, command and staff, for chemical and radiation reconnaissance, for electronic warfare, for the sanitary service and others.
The basic armored personnel carrier has three compartments. The control compartment, in which the driver's seat was located on the left, the landing commander's seat (driver's assistant), on the right. An isolated engine compartment is installed behind the control compartment, to the right of which there is a passage to the troop compartment from the control compartment, formed behind the engine compartment to the stern of the hull. In the troop compartment facing the side and back to each other on the seats up to 10 paratroopers are accommodated. A double-leaf door with dimensions of 1250x1340 millimeters is made in the back sheet of the hull for the landing and landing of the assault force. For the landing and disembarkation of troops, two hatches located on the roof of the troop compartment can be used.
The total weight of the armored personnel carrier is 16 thousand kg. Own weight - 13.8 thousand kg. Carrying capacity - 2, 2 thousand kg. Dimensions: length - 6830 mm, width - 2980 mm, height on the roof - 2300 mm. The ground clearance under the body is 505 millimeters, under the axle housings - 445 millimeters.
The welded body is made of steel armor and provides protection against 7.62 mm bullets from all directions. The frontal projection of the body is capable of protecting 12.7 mm from bullets from a distance of 300 meters. The protective glass of the cockpit is bulletproof and can be protected by an armored cover.
Armament: 7, 62-mm machine gun and six smoke grenade launchers located on the left side of the hull. Some vehicles are equipped with a 20mm automatic cannon.
In the engine compartment there is a diesel V-shaped 8-cylinder OM 402 A engine with turbocharging, liquid cooling and Mercedes-Benz service systems. Power - 235 kW, rotational speed - 2500 rpm. The specific power of the armored personnel carrier is 14, 72 kW / t. The motor is assembled in one block with a 6-speed automatic transmission 6 HP500.
The drive axles have a dependent suspension. The wheels of the two front axles are steered. Tire size - 14.00x20. Turning circle - 17 meters (on land). Short-term maximum speed - 105 km / h (on the highway), minimum operating speed - 4 km / h, maximum - 90 km / h. The power reserve is 800 kilometers.
Movement through the water is provided by two 480 mm propellers installed behind the wheels of the third axle outside the hull. The propellers rotate 360 degrees independently of the rotation of the steer wheels using an electro-hydraulic drive for floating control.
To remove seawater from the hull, there are three sump pumps, the total flow of which is 540 liters per minute. On land, three kingston valves located on the bottom of the body are used to drain the water.
The maximum driving speed is 10 km / h in calm deep water. The Froude number by displacement is 0.56.
American specialists from various firms took an active part in the creation of the modified Fuchs armored personnel carriers. In 1988, for example, the American company General Dynamics and the Thyssen-Henschel company developed a variant of the Fuchs vehicle for reconnaissance of the terrain after using weapons of mass destruction. It was assumed that if the tests of this car are successful, the United States Army will acquire about 400 units. In 1989, several of these vehicles underwent comparative tests in the United States at various proving grounds.
In connection with the preparation by the United States and Great Britain of military operations in the Persian Gulf zone, the countries rented 70 Fuchs vehicles. In a very short time, special equipment was installed on the machines, as they feared the use of chemical weapons by the Iraqi army. The first group of specialized vehicles XM93 "Fuchs" from NBC was transferred to the US Army in 1993 for field testing. The special equipment installed on them was practically all American. Among the equipment: chemical reconnaissance sensors, meteorological sensors, a mass spectrometer and other sensors that were installed in the middle of the hull on a retractable mast. In the rear of the car, equipment for sampling soil was installed.
On the basis of the Tpz-1 "Fuchs" armored personnel carrier and other armored wheeled vehicles, Mercedes-Benz and EVK began, by order of the Bundeswehr, in 1978, work on the creation of an armored amphibious vehicle ARE (Amphibische Pionier-erkundungs - Kfz-APE), intended for engineering reconnaissance, including on water obstacles. This vehicle differs from the basic armored personnel carrier, first of all, by the 4x4 wheel arrangement instead of 6x6 and by a set of special vehicles located in the hull. equipment.
The total combat weight of the vehicle is 14.5 thousand kg. Overall dimensions: length - 6930 mm, width - 3080 mm, height - 2400 mm. Crew - 4 people.
The 235.5 kW diesel engine provides the machine with a high specific power (16.0 kW / t), increases its mobility on the ground and cross-country ability. Wide-profile tubeless tires 20, 5x25 also contribute to increasing the cross-country ability of the machine. In addition, all tires are connected to a centralized air pressure regulation system. The car is capable of climbing up to 35 degrees, a vertical wall up to 50 cm high, ditches and ditches up to 1 m wide. The maximum speed on the highway is 80 kilometers per hour, while the fuel range is 800 kilometers.
The armament of the vehicle is a 20-mm automatic cannon, which is mounted on the roof of a fully enclosed displacement hull. For the manufacture of the hull, sheets of armor steel were used, which provide bulletproof protection for equipment and crew. The machine is equipped with special equipment that allows you to measure the depth, width and speed of the current of water areas, as well as the steepness of river banks and the characteristics of the soil surfaces of their channels. In addition, this equipment allows the Kfz-APE to be georeferenced on the ground. The machine is equipped with modern communication equipment, a fire-fighting system, a filter-ventilation unit, several smoke grenade launchers placed on its sides outside the hull, and drainage pumps that remove seawater.
The maximum speed of movement on water - 12 km / h (Froude number by displacement - 0, 68) is provided by two four-blade rotating propellers with an energy load of 892 kW / m2, which are also used for control afloat together with steerable front wheels.
In the early 1990s, the Thyssen-Henschel company developed and prepared the serial production of the 4x4 wheeled amphibious armored personnel carrier "Condor", which is intended primarily for import to the countries of South America, Malaysia and others. A large number of Unimog units and assemblies, a cross-country vehicle, are used in the design of this vehicle.
The load-bearing displacement car body is made of rolled armor plates, protects at distances of more than 500 meters from 12, 7-mm bullets, as well as from small fragments of mines and shells. If necessary, a slight excess air pressure is created inside the housing, which, together with the filtering system, provides protection against bacteriological and chemical weapons.
In the middle part of the roof of the hull, a single rotating turret is installed, equipped with a 20-mm automatic cannon (ammunition for 200 rounds) and a 7.62-mm coaxial machine gun (ammunition for 500 rounds). 4 smoke grenade launchers are installed on each side of the hull.
The aft and middle and part of the hull is occupied by the troop compartment. The stern door is used for landing and disembarkation of troops. The driver's seat is in an armored cabin, which protrudes forward relative to the upper part of the hull on the left side. There are windows in front of the cab and on the sides, which are closed with armored covers if necessary. There is a hatch in the cab roof. The engine compartment is located behind the sealed partition to the right of the driver's seat. It is equipped with a diesel 124 kW 6-cylinder liquid-cooled engine from Daimler-Benz, its systems, as well as some mechanical transmission units. The suspension of the wheels is dependent, the wheels of the front axle are steered.
Crew - 2 people. Troopers - 10 people. Machine weight - 12.4 thousand kg. Overall dimensions: length - 6500 mm, width - 2470 mm, height - 2080 mm. The ground clearance is 480 mm. Maximum speeds: 105 km / h (highway), 10 km / h (water). The fuel range on the roads is 900 kilometers.
In Germany, as in other countries, in addition to heavy, medium and light amphibious vehicles, small-sized amphibious transporters were created and tested for the transport of small consignments of goods for various purposes and types in a wide range of traffic conditions. These machines were used mainly on unpaved surfaces with relatively low grip and bearing parameters.
From this group of machines, three small amphibious transporters should be cited as an example - Solo 750, Chico and Allmobil Max 11. Allmobil Max 11 was developed jointly with the United States.
This type of conveyor is characterized by open bearing bodies made of reinforced plastics, fixed wheels rigidly connected to the body, simplified chassis and transmission designs.
The amphibious conveyor Solo 750 (wheel arrangement 6x6) has a displacement bearing body made of a reinforced plastic composition. Wall thickness - 5 millimeters. In the most loaded places, the walls are reinforced with metal inserts.
The unladen weight of the Solo 750 is up to 220 kilograms, the carrying capacity is 230 kilograms, and the gross weight is 450 kilograms. Overall dimensions: length - 2130 mm, width - 1420 mm, height - 960 mm (without awning).
The installation of 15, 2 kW 2-stroke 2-cylinder diesel engine or 2-cylinder gasoline engine with a capacity of 18, 4 kW with opposed cylinders (speed 6000 rpm) is provided. The specific power when using a gasoline engine is 40, 88 kW / t.
From the engine, the torque is transmitted to the middle wheels, after which chain drives to the rear and front wheels. Transmission (reversible, continuously variable) allows you to move at a speed of 60 kilometers per hour. The fuel range is 120 kilometers.
Changing the direction of movement is carried out by braking the wheels of one side. Management was carried out by special levers. In this case, a double differential with two controlled friction elements provides smooth control of the turning radius, but straight-line stable movement on soil surfaces that have different resistance to movement along the sides is not achieved.
Band brakes are also operated by levers. When you press the foot pedal, the front wheels are braked, the rest of the wheels are braked through chain drives.
When the wheels are rigidly attached to the body, a smooth ride is ensured by wide-profile low-pressure tubeless tires. The specific pressure of the wheels on the ground is up to 35 kPa.
The speed of movement on water reaches 5 kilometers per hour. The movement is carried out by rotating the wheels. At the same time, the Froude number by displacement is 0, 5. When installing an outboard motor, the speed of movement in deep calm water increases to 9 km / h, while the Froude number increases equal to 0, 91.
Another small amphibious transporter Chico was a less successful model, since it had a 4x2 wheel arrangement, a gross weight of 2400 kilograms and a carrying capacity of 1000 kilograms. Overall dimensions: length - 3750 mm, width - 1620 mm, height - 1850 mm. The conveyor has a mechanical transmission. As in other models, the wheels are the propeller. On land, the maximum speed is up to 65 km / h. At the same time, the speed on the water is not very high, since the traction force is created by only two wheels.
The Allmobil Max 11 transporter was developed as an amphibious vehicle for business and personal use. This machine was developed by the German company Allmobil together with the American company Recreatives Industries Ing. In 1966, small-scale production began.
The wheel formula of the conveyor is 6x6, the gross weight is 600 kilograms, the carrying capacity is 350 kilograms. Overall dimensions: length - 2320 mm, width - 1400 mm, height - 800 mm, ground clearance - 150 mm, track - 1400 mm. The power of the engine located in the body behind the passenger and driver's seats in the aft section is 13.3 kW or 18.4 kW. The specific power of the conveyor is 22, 2 or 30, 7 kW / t, respectively. The engine provides a maximum speed of up to 50 km / h.
The supporting body of the machine is made of plastic. In places subject to the greatest stress, it is reinforced. All conveyor wheels equipped with low-pressure wide-profile tires are rigidly attached to the body. The specific pressure of the wheels on the ground is from 20 to 30 kPa. The machine has a continuously variable transmission with chain drive on all wheels. In addition, it is possible to install a transmission with a centrifugal clutch and a 5-speed gearbox.
Lever-operated band brakes are used to brake or change the direction of movement on water and on land by completely stopping or braking the wheels of one side of the machine.
Movement on water is provided by all wheels, while the maximum speed is 5 km / h (Froude's displacement number - 0, 48).
The transporter can have four or two seats. The Allmobil Max 11 electrical kit includes the necessary lighting and signaling devices that provide the car with the status of a road vehicle.
In 1982 in g. For the first time, the EWK Bizon floating truck was presented at the Hannover Aviation Exhibition, intended for use in various civil areas. The wheel arrangement of a two-axle car is 4x4, a control cabin for 2-3 people.
Vehicle weight - 11 thousand kg, weight with a load - 16 thousand kg. The carrying capacity on water and on land is 5 thousand kg, but in some cases it can increase up to 7 thousand kg. Overall dimensions: length - 9340 mm, width - 2480 mm, height - 2960 mm (in the cabin), and 3400 mm (in the awning). Specific power - 14.7 kW / t. The maximum travel speed is 80 km / h. The fuel range is 900 km.
V-shaped, 8-cylinder, air-cooled diesel engine, power of which is 235.5 kW, is arranged behind the control cabin above the front axle. The cargo platform is located behind the engine compartment. Cab doors and platform tailgate are located above the waterline.
Movement through the water is provided by the operation of two full-turn propellers, which are installed in the stern. By changing the position of the propellers relative to the longitudinal axis of the amphibious truck, good control afloat is ensured, but at the same time, there is a slight decrease in the speed of movement in circulation. To reduce the resistance of the water, at which the speed of movement on the water increases, the machine has a wheel lifting system. At the same time, the maximum travel speed is 12 km / h and the cruising range is 80 km. The Froude number in terms of displacement is 0, 67.
On the basis of Bizon, they created the ALF-2 variant. Its cargo platform has two hydrants and additional equipment. Hydrant water supply - 4000 liters per minute. The total weight of ALF-2 is 17 thousand kg.
Around the same time, another transport amphibious vehicle was developed - the Amphitruck AT-400, designed for off-road unloading of ships. This car looks like a Bizon. The cargo platform allows you to place 20-ton containers with dimensions 6000x2400x2400 cm. The overall dimensions of the vehicle allow it to be transported by air or by rail.
Wheel formula - 4x4. The weight of the car with a load is 43 thousand kg.
Diesel engine power equal to 300 kW (specific power - 6, 98 kW / t) allows reaching a speed of 40 km / h (on the highway). The fuel range is 300 km.
Overall dimensions: length - 12,700 millimeters, width - 3,500 millimeters, cabin height - 4,000 millimeters. Cargo compartment dimensions: width - 2500 mm, length - 6300 mm.
All wheels of the car are steerable.
The maximum speed of movement in deep calm water does not exceed 10 kilometers per hour, the Froude number in terms of displacement in this case (or relative speed) is 0, 475. Cruising on water for fuel is up to 80 kilometers.
This article describes not all amphibious vehicles developed in the 20th century in Germany. However, the main approaches to the creation of such machines and those achieved. characteristics are reviewed. At the same time, these materials show that the German design bureau and industrial enterprises in the last century managed to accumulate quite a lot of experience in creating amphibious tracked and wheeled vehicles, various in purpose and design, those. the characteristics of which have improved.