Chinese "Type 055". Destroyer with cruiser characteristics

Chinese "Type 055". Destroyer with cruiser characteristics
Chinese "Type 055". Destroyer with cruiser characteristics
Anonim
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China is actively developing its naval surface fleet, and one of the main measures in this direction is the construction of destroyers. Over the past decades, dozens of such ships have been built according to several projects, and these processes do not stop. The newest, largest and most powerful destroyers for the PLA Navy at the moment are the ships of the Type 055 project. Three such pennants have already been commissioned, and in the future they plan to build almost three dozen more.

New generation ship

The massive construction of modern destroyers for the PLA Navy started at the beginning of the 2000s. In the future, several different projects were consistently developed and implemented in metal. Each new destroyer project was based on modern technologies and components, and also took into account the operating experience of previous ships.

Since 2010, the construction of destroyers pr. "052D" has been carried out. It was originally planned that in the future this project will be redesigned to improve the main characteristics and combat qualities. However, it then became clear that Type 052D has limited modernization potential and a completely new project is needed to obtain all the desired results.

Soon, work on the modernization of "052D" was curtailed and a new project "055" was launched, the development of which was officially announced only in 2014. By this time, they managed to complete the necessary design work, as well as build and test a ground model of the superstructure with electronic weapons.

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As it became known, the purpose of the Type 055 project is to create a destroyer of increased size and displacement, capable of carrying a wider range of modern and advanced weapons in large numbers. For this, it was planned to use up-to-date technologies and solutions, which also made it possible to create a reserve for subsequent upgrades.

It was planned to build 16 ships for all three fleets. The lead destroyer was supposed to enter the combat composition of the Navy no later than 2018-20. Later it became known about a possible increase in the series up to 30 units. The last ships will have to enter the combat composition of the fleet by 2035.

Under construction

In 2014, the Jiangnan Shipyard (Shanghai) began preparations for the construction of the lead destroyer 055. In December of the same year, a groundbreaking ceremony took place. The ship received the tail number "101" and the name "Nanchang". It was launched at the end of June 2017, after which the completion stage afloat began.

In 2018-19. the head "Type 055" passed the necessary tests, including firing with the use of all types of weapons. On January 12, 2020, the destroyer was handed over to the customer, who included it in the combat strength of the Northern Fleet. To date, "Nanchang" has managed to make several voyages as part of different ship groups.

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In April 2018, the first serial destroyer Lhasa with w / n 102 was launched in Shanghai. After all the necessary tests, on March 2, 2021, he also entered the Northern Fleet. In July 2018, two new ships were launched at the Dalian Shipbuilding Industry Company in Dalian. One of them, Dalian, was transferred to the Navy this year. The second is still being tested.

According to known data, up to 3-4 new destroyers are currently being tested. The same number of ships is still at different stages of construction. The work is carried out at once by two enterprises in Shanghai and Dalian, which should speed up the implementation of the entire program.It is quite possible that the previously planned series of 16 large ships will be completed in the second half of this decade, and by the mid-thirties, 14 more pennants will be operational.

The short construction time was achieved due to the modular-sectional approach. The ship is assembled from nine large sections, which by the time of docking receive the bulk of the necessary equipment. In addition, new technologies for manufacturing large-sized parts have been introduced, which reduces the required number of operations and speeds up assembly.

Technical features

The destroyer "Type 055" is a surface ship approx. 180 m, maximum width approx. 20 m and a draft of more than 6 m. Normal displacement - 11 thousand tons, full - 13 thousand tons. The ship is operated by a crew of 310 people.

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It is noteworthy that the newest Chinese ships in terms of size and displacement go beyond the usual limits of the "destroyer" class. In the foreign press, "Type 055" is often compared with American missile cruisers of the Ticonderoga type - they are several meters shorter and have a displacement of less than 10 thousand tons.

The ship "055" is built on the basis of a traditional hull design and receives a faceted superstructure with two "islands" and a mast. Most of the units and devices are retracted inside the structure, which should reduce the visibility in different ranges. On the superstructure, there are places for mounting the AFAR of the main radar.

The project provides for the use of a main power plant of the COGAG type based on four QC-280 gas turbine engines with a capacity of 38 thousand hp each. each running on two propeller shafts. Two of them are used constantly, the second pair is used to increase the total power. The ship's power systems are built around six 5 MW QD-50 gas turbine generators.

With this energy, the ship develops a speed of up to 30 knots. Economic speed - 20 knots. The cruising range reaches 5 thousand nautical miles.

It is expected that in the future, Type 055 ships will begin to receive upgraded QC-280 engines with a capacity of 45 thousand hp each. The power supply will be rebuilt using an integrated power plant. At the same time, the existing 30 MW generators not only correspond to existing consumers, but also create a power reserve for further modernization.

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The ship is equipped with a Chinese-developed high-performance digital combat information and control system. It integrates the main Type 346B surveillance radar, capable of detecting large targets at ranges of up to 600 km. Four AFARs of this station are installed on the superstructure. The AFAR station for monitoring the air situation is located on the mast. There are also radio equipment for controlling the fire of anti-aircraft and artillery systems. The use of active and passive electronic warfare is envisaged.

In the bow of the ship is the SJD-9 hydroacoustic station with a detection range of underwater targets up to 10 km. In the stern there are means for the release of a towed GAS ESS-1 with a range of 25 km.

Type 055 is equipped with modular universal vertical missile launchers. Each such module has eight cells. There are eight modules in front of the superstructure, six more in the center of the ship. The total ammunition load is 112 missiles. The destroyer can use YJ-18 and CJ-10 cruise missiles to engage surface and coastal targets. Air defense at medium and long range is carried out using HHQ-9 and HHQ-16 missiles. It is also possible to use CY-5 anti-submarine missiles.

In front of the bow launcher is the 130 mm H / PJ-38 artillery system. The ship also carries one 11-barreled 30-mm machine gun H / PJ-11 and an anti-aircraft complex HJ-10 with its own launcher for 24 missiles. To combat underwater targets, there are two three-tube torpedo tubes of 324 mm caliber with Yu-7 torpedoes.

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A hangar for two helicopters is provided in the aft part of the superstructure.The destroyer can carry multipurpose or anti-submarine vehicles of the Z-9, Z-18 or Z-20 type for solving various auxiliary tasks. A compartment for rigid-hull inflatable boats is provided in the rear of the hull.

Ships in service

The destroyer "Type 055" is designed to work as part of ship groups for various purposes. Its main task is to provide air defense of the formation at medium and long ranges. At the same time, he is able to defend himself and other ships from an air attack in the near zone and from underwater threats. The destroyer is also capable of attacking surface and coastal targets.

The composition of the ammunition of the main launchers is determined in accordance with the missions of the campaign. It is known that a typical combat load includes up to 65-70 HHQ-9 and HHQ-16 anti-aircraft missiles, up to 20-24 cruise missiles for attacking coastal targets, and up to 12-15 units. anti-ship weapons.

The lead "Nanchang" over the past year has repeatedly gone to sea as part of various ship groups. In particular, he already had to accompany aircraft carriers and landing ships. Two serial destroyers that have already entered service should also be involved in such campaigns. Then the next ships "Type 055" will join them.

Fleet prospects

The gradual and long-term development of the direction of destroyers led to the most interesting results. The Chinese industry has created and handed over to the Navy new destroyers with potential at the level of foreign cruisers. Together with destroyers of the "traditional" appearance, they will become the basis of the surface forces, capable of defending themselves and the indicated areas, as well as attacking any targets.

However, the full potential of "Type 055" will be realized only in the distant future. So far, only three new ships have been accepted into the PLA Navy, which leads to certain restrictions. However, in the next year or two, their number may double or even triple - and construction will not stop there. In addition, work will continue to modernize the project. As a result, by the mid-thirties the destroyers of pr. 055 will become widespread and will not become obsolete morally.

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