Russia creates strategic missiles of a new class

Russia creates strategic missiles of a new class
Russia creates strategic missiles of a new class
Russia creates strategic missiles of a new class
Russia creates strategic missiles of a new class

The most powerful ballistic missiles R-36M2 Voevoda, known in the West under the terrible name Satan, will be replaced by fifth-generation super-missiles.

One of the largest military-industrial associations located in the Moscow region is developing a new silo-based heavy intercontinental ballistic missile.

In the history of this enterprise, there were the most breakthrough missile projects. There is no doubt that a heavy ballistic missile - a worthy replacement for Voevoda - will be created there.

In the Soviet years, it took eight years from receiving the terms of reference for a new missile product to putting it on combat duty in the silo. Subject to good funding and acceleration of work, the rocket may end up in the mine, as in the past, also in eight years. At the same time, as the NGO specialists emphasize, in principle they cannot have the same problems that arose during the creation of the Bulava sea missile.

At one time, domestic designers bypassed competitors in the world arena in absolutely everything. None of the newest American strategic missiles in their combat capabilities to this day even come close to the very first version of the heavy R-36.

A number of technical clarifications should be made. Work on the world's most powerful ballistic missile, the R-36, also known as the 15PA14, began in 1969. In 1975, she entered service. Further, a number of important upgrades were carried out. As a result, three types of missile systems were put into operation. According to the START code, these complexes used missiles - RS-20A, RS-20B, RS-20V. According to the NATO code - SS-18 - Satan of six modifications. The Americans took into account even minor modernization improvements, we are the most significant. The name "Satan" was given overseas to the very first Soviet rocket R-36 (RS-20A). They say that she received a frightening name for the black color in which the body was painted.

The R-36 rocket belonged to the third generation. She, like the R-36M, had only alphanumeric indexing. Only the R-36M2, which entered service with the Strategic Missile Forces in 1988, began to be called the military name "Voevoda". It was assigned to the fourth generation, although in fact it was a very deep modernization of the very first R-36 missile.

The entire Soviet Union worked on the project, but the main burden fell on Ukraine, primarily on the Yuzhnoye design bureau, located in Dnepropetrovsk. The chief designers were successively Mikhail Yangel, followed by Vladimir Utkin.

The creation of the rocket was not easy. Of the 43 test launches of the first series, only 36 were successful. The first test launch of the Voevoda in the spring of 1986 ended in a serious accident. The rocket exploded in a silo launcher, which was completely destroyed. Fortunately, there were no human casualties. As a result, Voevoda became the most reliable missile in the world. Its service life has now been officially extended to 20 years, possibly up to 25 years. This is a unique case. After all, the rocket is constantly fueled with rather aggressive components of liquid fuel and oxidizer. The new generation of "Voevoda" in its characteristics should surpass their predecessors, who are now on alert. The missile is housed in virtually invulnerable underground mines. They can only be hit by a direct hit from an enemy missile with a nuclear warhead. And an explosion a few hundred meters from the mine is not terrible for Voevoda. The rocket launches even in the conditions of a fire and dust hurricane that accompanies a nuclear explosion. It is not afraid of hard X-rays or neutron fluxes.

Almost any target on the planet is achievable, it can fly at a range from 11,000 km to 16,000 km, depending on the mass of the warhead. The maximum warhead mass in fourth-generation missiles is 8730 kg. For comparison: the American ICBM silo-based "Minuteman-3" fly at a distance of up to 13,000 km, but with a warhead weighing 1150 kg. Even the most powerful US ICBM - the latest modifications of the Trident sea - throws a 2.8-ton warhead at 11,000 km. All the tactical and technical parameters of the projected missile are strictly secret. However, it is clear that they will surpass the capabilities of the current Voevods.

Different warheads have been created for different modifications and types of Satan. The most powerful is 25 megatons. Now on duty are only missiles with ten warheads, each of which contains 0.75 Mt of nuclear explosives in TNT equivalent. That is, the total charge is 7.5 Mt, which is more than enough to inflict irreparable losses on the enemy in the attacked area.

The head module, which houses the warheads, has powerful armor protection. In addition, it carries a whole swarm of distracting targets that create the impression of a supermassive strike on the radars of missile defense systems. According to NATO experts, in such conditions it is impossible to distinguish real warheads. All nuclear ballistic missiles have false targets today. But only in "Voevoda" was it possible to realize full identity in the physical fields of tricks and warheads.

In the Strategic Missile Forces of the times of the USSR, 308 Satan complexes were deployed as part of five missile divisions. Now Russia is protected by 74 launchers with Voevoda missiles. By the way, even after retirement, heavy missiles continue to serve in civilian life. The R-36M missiles removed from combat duty were converted into a commercial launch vehicle "Dnepr". With its help, about forty foreign satellites for various purposes were launched into space orbits. There was a case when a rocket that had been on alert for 24 years, almost a quarter of a century, worked without any problems.

In 1991, the Yuzhmash Design Bureau developed a preliminary design of the fifth generation R-36M3 Ikar missile system. Did not work out. Now heavy missiles are indeed of the fifth generation, and not just another modification, is being created in Russia. The latest scientific and technological achievements will be invested in it. But we must hurry. In 2014, the inevitable write-off of even reliable, but still old "Voevods" will begin.

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